Czech language

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Czech language

(chĕk), in the past sometimes also called Bohemian, member of the West Slavic group of the Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languagesSlavic languages,
also called Slavonic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Because the Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European
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). The official language of the Czech Republic, it is spoken by about 11 million people, of whom over 10 million reside there and close to 1 million of whom are in Slovakia and North America combined. Grammatically, Czech has seven cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, instrumental, and vocative) for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives. It is not necessary to use personal pronouns with verbs since person and number are clearly shown by the verb endings; however, personal pronouns may be used for emphasis. In the pronunciation of Czech the stress always falls on the first syllable of a word, but this accentuation is not shown by diacritical marks such as accents. A sharp distinction is made between long and short vowels, and an acute accent (´) is used to indicate where vowels are lengthened, i.e., where their pronunciation is relatively protracted. A hook or inverted circumflex (ˇ) over a consonant is the sign that the consonant is palatalized, or pronounced with the tip of the tongue on the palate. The earliest surviving record of Czech is in the form of glosses in a Latin manuscript of the 11th cent. A.D. The period of Old Czech, the oldest stage of the language, is usually placed in the 11th to 14th cent. At that time there were many dialects. A Czech literature began to take shape in the 13th cent. Standardization of the spelling and pronunciation of the language occurred during the Middle Czech period of the 15th and 16th cents., largely as a result of the work of John HussHuss, John
, Czech Jan Hus , 1369?–1415, Czech religious reformer. Early Life

Of peasant origin, he was born in Husinec, Bohemia (from which his name is derived). He studied theology at the Univ. of Prague, was ordained a priest c.
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, the celebrated Czech religious reformer, who made the Prague dialect the basis of his far-reaching linguistic reforms. The modern period of Czech began in the 17th cent. The domination of the Czechs by the Hapsburg rulers of Austria from 1620 to 1918 seriously hampered the development of the Czech language and literature, although a national literary revival began in the 18th cent. After independence was regained in 1918, the language and literature of Czechoslovakia again began to flourish. Czech was one of two official languages (the other being Slovak) of Czechoslovakia, and remained the official language of the Czech Republic after Czechoslovakia was dissolved in 1993. A modified version of the Roman alphabet is used for writing Czech.

Bibliography

See W. E. Harkins, A Modern Czech Grammar (1953); R. G. A. de Bray, Guide to the Slavonic Languages (rev. ed. 1969); M. Heim, Contemporary Czech (1982).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Cesky Krumlove: Named a Unesco world heritage site in 1992.
In 2000, he became the Senior Network Operations Manager of Cesky Mobile (ma Vodafone CZ), then took over the Operations and IT Operations Director position in 2004, and later the Regional IT and Operations Director of the CE Region at First Data International.
In every itinerant's journey, new details push our sense of awe to the surface once again that day passing through Spitz in Austria with the houses on the riverbanks taking my breath away the misty morning coming into Passau in Germany, a mist so thick it covered the autumn colors on the hills and then slowly lifting as though in a striptease that day in Cesky Krumlov in the Czech Republic looking at the rooftops, something that had been on my bucket list for a long time and the taste of a cup of hot chocolate between my freezing hands at the stern of the ship while watching the sun rise and enjoying the quietness.
Summary: Prague [Czech Republic], Oct 10 (ANI/Sputnik): The Prague-based Cesky Rozhlas broadcaster reported on Wednesday, citing Czech intelligence sources, that Russian citizens Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov accused by UK authorities of poisoning former double agent Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia in the town of Salisbury, secretly visited the Czech Republic in October 2014, where Skripal himself was supposed to arrive at the same time to meet with Czech intelligence officers.
The area of arable soils has decreased from 3351570 ha to 2965606 ha and the area of forest soils has increased from 2599628 ha to 2669850 ha (Cesky urad zememericky a katastralni, 2017).
'Postcard-pretty' has since been replaced by 'Instagrammable,' a word that brings to mind Cesky Krumlov, one of the most Instagram-worthy towns there is, tucked away in the heart of the Czech Republic.
There are more recordings of the individual cycles of Moravian Duets, both in Czech (Prochazkova, Sykorova; Trio Ridente; Kuhmeier, Fink, and others) and German (Schwarzkopf, Seefried; Banse, Fassbaender; Bonney, Kirchschlager, and others), especially those which make use of the female and mixed choir (Bouches-du-Rhone, Cesky pevecky sbor, Kuhn's Mixed Choir, Pevecke sdruzeni prazskych ucitelek, Prazsti pevci).
I hopped a bus from Prague to the medieval town of Cesky Krumlov and arrived in the middle of a thunderstorm, with no hotel reservation.
It was nice to get the exposure for our breed but the article doesn't make it fully clear that our dogs are now Cesky Fousek too.
The crown jewels--Prague's Colloredo-Mansfeld Palace, the Charles Bridge, and the Nostic Theater-were dressed in 1787 finery for the recent U.K.-Czech production "Interlude in Prague"--which also made use of the towns of Cesky Krumlov, Libochovice, Ploskovice, Jemniste, and Doksany --to convey the story of Mozart's work on his operatic masterpiece "Don Giovanni," which he composed in Prague.
However, our research revealed that while many Gulf nationals do indeed go to Prague or Cesky Krumlov for healing water-based spa treatments, one of their key motivations for so doing was to get away from their hot home region to a more temperate clime.