Ch'ien-lung


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Related to Ch'ien-lung: Qianlong

Ch'ien-lung

(chyĕn`-lo͞ong`), 1711–99, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty, whose given name was Hung-li. Under his vigorous military policy, China attained its maximum territorial expanse; XinjiangXinjiang
or Sinkiang
[Chinese,=new frontier], officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Mandarin Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu), autonomous region (2010 pop. 21,813,334), c.637,000 sq mi (1,650,257 sq km), NW China.
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 in the west was conquered, and Myanmar and Annam in the south were forced to recognize Chinese suzerainty. He restricted Western merchants to Guangzhou (Canton) in 1759, and he rejected British overtures for expanded trade and diplomatic ties in 1793. Ch'ien-lung was a patron of scholarship and the arts; some of China's finest porcelain and cloisonné were produced for his collections, and vast anthologies were edited, partly to censor seditious references to the Manchus. Despite the surface splendor of cultural achievement and imperial expansion, his reign in later years was characterized by growing official corruption, loss of military efficiency, and fiscal imbalance.

Bibliography

See S. A. Hedin, Jehol: City of the Emperors (1932); L. C. Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien Lung (1935); E. H. Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750–1800 (1936); H. L. Kahn, Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (1971).

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Readers without Chinese will certainly be frustrated to be told, for example, that the Ch'ien-lung emperor claimed to have the makings of a great historian (p.
This incident is the subject of Quincy's vividly written first chapter, entitled "Ch'ien-lung's Revenge." (4) The chapter begins as follows:
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125-141; Dan Martin "Bonpo Canons and Jesuit Cannons: On Sectarian Factors Involved in the Ch'ien-lung Emperor's Second Goldstream Expedition of 1771-1776, Based Primarily on Some Tibetan Sources," The Tibet Journal, XV, 2 (1990), 3-28 (citations are from the version reprinted in Alex McKay, ed., The History of Tibet, III:633-647); Joanna Waley-Cohen, "Religion, War, and Empire-Building in Eighteenth-Century China," International History Review, 20, 2 (June, 1998), pp.
(7) Woodside, "The Ch'ien-lung [Qianlong] Reign," p.
Most enlightening is her explanation of how and why the court's aims and strategies for the training of bannermen - in hierarchically differentiated statuses - changed between the middle K'ang-hsi and late Ch'ien-lung reigns, with definite consequences for bannermen's abilities to respond when China faced the Western powers in the nineteenth century.
The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien-lung. American Council of Learned Societies: Studies in Chinese and Related Civilizations, no.
"On Certain Books Suppressed by Order of Ch'ien-lung During the Years 1772-1788." International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow, 1960 (1963), 5:71-77.