congenital heart disease

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congenital heart disease,

any defect in the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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 present at birth. There is evidence that some congenital heart defects are inherited, but the cause of most cases is unknown. One known cause is infection of the mother with the rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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 (German measles) virus during the first trimester of pregnancy. Among the most common congenital heart disorders are malformations in the valves and the persistence of structures that are normally closed off at birth, i.e., the ductus arteriosis (the fetal blood vessel that shunts blood from the pulmonary vein to the aorta, bypassing the heart) and the foramen ovale (the opening between the left and right atria of the fetal heart). If the malformation is severe, it will produce various symptoms of insufficient heart function, such as cyanosis (a bluish tinge to the skin), dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), fatigue, and abnormal heartbeat; valvular deformities predispose the patient to bacterial infection of the endocardium (see endocarditisendocarditis
, bacterial or fungal infection of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart) that can be either acute or subacute. In the acute form the symptoms (fever, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, anemia) are directly related to the presence of an active infection that runs
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). Less severe malformations may not produce noticeable symptoms until later in life, and some may not require any medical attention. Many congenital heart defects that are debilitating can be corrected surgically. Other congenital anomalies, such as Down syndromeDown syndrome,
congenital disorder characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, slow physical development, and characteristic physical features. Down syndrome affects about 1 in every 730 live births and occurs in all populations equally.
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, are present in about 20% of cases of congenital heart disease. See also heart diseaseheart disease,
any of several abnormalities of the heart and its function in maintaining blood circulation. Heart disease is the cause of approximately half the deaths in the United States each year.
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References in periodicals archive ?
As many of the subjects in the CHD group were minors (<18 years old), written informed consent was obtained from the parents or legal guardians of the children enrolled in this study as necessary.
In their current project, the scientists studied associations between incident CHD and the consumption of different types of dairy product.
* Discusses the medications prescribed to combat CHD, including their side effects
Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA was used to assess the association between CHD 9 expression and various clinic-pathological parameters and molecular markers.
The neurobehavioral "signature" of CHD includes cognitive defects (usually mild), short attention span, fine and gross motor delays, speech and language delays, visual motor integration, and executive function deficits.
CHD was divided into minor CHD and severe CHD if cardiac surgical repair was needed during the first year of life.
The correlation coefficient for the association of TMAO with conventional prognostic markers of CHD patients was measured by Pearson's correlation analysis.
Table 3 shows that only 1 patient [9.09%] of CHD developed cardiac complication (infective endocarditis) whereas 18 out of 29 patients of AHD (62.06%) developed several cardiac complications [Heart failure=7 pts., Atrial fibrillation=4 pts., Pulmonary arterial hypertension=4 pts., Arrhythmia=3 pts.,].
This cross-sectional study took place in the Langfang district's 11 maternal and child health certificate registries responsible for the diagnosis of CHD as commissioned by the Health Administrative Department of District.
In subsequent visits (visits 2-4), three doses of CHD (300, 600, or 1200 mg) were randomly administered to the subjects.
The design of the study was dual: one part was a retrospective study of the children's records and the other part was a cross-sectional long-term follow-up comparing bowel symptoms in children with HD with or without CHD, respectively.