The crucial battle took place in 338 at Plutarch's Chaeronea. The Sacred Band were once more the prime troops of the Greek army, still intact and undefeated, but this was their Gotterdammerung.
It was restored in 1902 by an organisation called the Order of Chaeronea. This was in fact a secret, quasi-Masonic society of English homosexuals, founded and led by the reformer George Cecil Ives.
Here Demosthenes and Hyperides are shown to be playing a zero-sum game of oratory after the battle of Chaeronea, delivering speeches whose thematization of the stark contrast between servitude and mastery sharpens the risks they are presently taking to avoid the one and acquire the other.
Hume tackles the rhetorical implications of such power in his essay "Of Eloquence," where he tries to account for the decay of public speaking, from the boldness and excess of Demosthenes's speech on the battle of Chaeronea to the pallid proprieties of modern parliamentary debates.
Epaphroditus of Chaeronea
, also of the first century, is (2) in OCD, and also not the one in Philippians.
A good resume of the Platonist outlook is Section 154, "Die Seele ist eine [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]," with selections from Porphyry and Plutarch of Chaeronea
, who portray the soul as interposed between the realms of Being and Becoming, the intellectual and sensorial, so as to underscore its unique character and position in the world.
On Stratocles' proposal, the Athenians passed the first ever posthumous award for sitesis to honor Lycurgus, the architect of democratic renewal after Chaeronea
, who died just before the period of the oligarchies.
Niese, Geschichte der Griechischen und Makedonischen Staaten seit der Schlacht bei Chaeronea
(Gotha, 1903), Vol.
Principal battles: Chaeronea
(338); Granicus (334); Issus (333); Arbela (Irbil)/Gaugamela (near ancient Nineveh) (331); Hydaspes (Jhelum) (326).
[GREEK TEXT OMITTED] man was expelled;(32) at Abdera a poor man or slave;(33) at Chaeronea
a slave;(34) at Leucas a criminal;(35) at Ephesus Apollonius chose a beggar to be pharmakos;(36) in the Diodoran romance of Iamboulos a stranger of another race is used.(37)
Principal battles: Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence) (102); Chaeronea
(86); Orchomenus (85); the Colline Gate (now within the city limits of Rome) (83).
The technique had worked well enough after Chaeronea
,(42) and it is hard to believe that now, in an even greater crisis, there was not a positive avalanche of cheap but flattering honours.