Those who doubt the diversity of transliteration schemes may consider that the name of the great composer Tchaikovsky (French) or Tschaikowsky (German) is spelled in Russian (Cyrillic) exactly as that of the revolutionary Chaykovsky (or Chaikovskii
Searching one of the best data bases for the works of Peter Illich Tchaikovsky, for example, would not yield the works of Petr Il'ich Chaikovskii
- or those listed under 18 other versions of the great composer's name.
In the book's second half, she studies the effects of that pathology (which she links with the Russian narrative style inoskazanie--YitcmWy "other telling" ) first on authors like Pushkin, who was fascinated by the recently suppressed world of Catherines court, then on the five operas she chooses as case studies, by composers from Glinka to Chaikovskii
: Ruslan and Liudmila, Rusalka, Mlada, Sadko, and The Queen of Spades.
Anecdotal evidence from the Fergana Valley confirms this conclusion: in 1900, the provincial military governor, Andrei Petrovich Chaikovskii, wrote an alarmed report to the tsar, in which he pointed to the deterioration of the living standards of Russian officials and civil servants and advocated an increase in taxation on cotton.
After Chaikovskii's 1900 report to the tsar on Fergana province, the new governor Georgii Alekseevich Arandarenko's report for 1903 articulated the same message: taxation on cotton was too low.
These two new volumes are a gold mine for the Tchaikovsky (or Chaikovskii
, as its compilers prefer) devotee.
(90) Yet a repertoire analysis of 1932 found that 57 percent of Moscow music broadcasting, or 15,000-20,000 numbers per year, consisted of works from the "heritage": first came Rimskii-Korsakov with 1,300 numbers, then Chaikovskii
and Schubert with 1,200 each, followed by Beethoven, Grieg, Mozart, Glinka, Musorgskii, Schumann, and so on.
If a user executes a search on Chaikovskii
, Petr Ilich, the system indicates only one hit, the cross reference to Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilich.
The two operas polarized a younger generation of composers: Petr Chaikovskii
and Rubenshtein united behind A Life, while the more nationalist-minded composers of the so-called Moguchaia kuchka (Nikolai Rimskii-Korsakov, Cesar Kiui, Modest Musorgskii, Aleksandr Borodin, and Milii Balakirev) lined up behind Ruslan.
(45) These included thinkers like Herzen, Bakunin, Chernyshevskii, Tkachev, and Petr Lavrov and organizations such as Zemlia i Volia, Young Russia, the Chaikovskii
Circle, Narodnaia Volia, and more.
I wrote that Chaikovskii
shared the work ethic of the generation of the 1860s, despite his conservative social habits and a certain squeamishness of his demeanor; in Taruskin's succinct formulation, Chaikovskii
comes out as "a dedicated social climber and a snob." The story of how Musorgskii lost his small estate-because he could not withstand the relentless bargaining that followed the liberation of the peasants and just gave it up-echoes in Taruskin's definition of him, together with Glinka, as a "petty aristocrat," a summary pronouncement that neglects vast historical, generational, and personal differences between these composers.
If my memory serves, it had its origin in a colloquium I was giving at the Slavic Department, in which I attempted a defense of Chaikovskii
's opera against the legions of offended Pushkinists who have inveighed against it since its premiere, lately under the banner of the militantly tone-deaf Nabokov.