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4) This makes the two caves--each of them a ribbed chaitya hall lined with tapering octagonal columns, ending in a rounded apse which encloses the perfect dome of a tall stone stupa--among the oldest rooms in the world, already 200 years old when Augustus started the rebuilding of Rome.
The closest monuments to the early caves of Ajanta are the other rock-cut chaitya halls of western India at sites like Bhaja, Bedsa and Pitalkhora.
Starting with an early chaitya hall (Cave 4), probably dating to the end of the 1st century CE (figure 1), on the basis of carefully explored historical and stylistic connections, it progresses to a small cluster of late 5th-century caves (Caves 1, 3, 4A) near the old hall.