Karl Rahner's 1954 essay "Chalcedon
: End or Beginning?" takes the doctrinal formulation of the two natures of Christ as a true and permanent foundation, a benchmark that then provokes questions about the meaning of a fully human nature.
endures, but as a shadow of his original vision.
Canon 24 of Chalcedon
forbade these temporary gifts to monasteries.
(3) The Case of Pope Honorius (625-638): The Monophysite movement had been a cause of trouble in the East ever since the Council of Chalcedon
. Monotheletism which admitted only one will in Christ was the conclusion of the Monophysite movement.
There are two letters of Nerses addressed to the Emperor: a secret one, in which it is mentioned that Nerses accepted the Synod of Chalcedon
, and an official one, in which it is affirmed that by the end of the discussions, Nerses declared that he could not make a decision regarding church unity without consulting the Synod of his church.
Edwards continues his argument with Origen and Origenism, Nicaea and the homoousious debates, and the Christological debates culminating in the symbol of Chalcedon
. In each case, he finds views that are attacked as heresy in their own day appearing as pillars of orthodoxy in subsequent debates.
The usual answer comes in the form of reference to a later council of the Church, at Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon
was a cliff-hanger, and it settled the Christological questions in ways that have largely satisfied Western Christians.
He plays this out through a series of fascinating examples as varied as mock trial cases involving pirates chronicled in Seneca the Elder; stories of depredation by state sanctioned pirates of Chalcedon
(near present day Istanbul); piratical kidnapping by Dionysus; Dutch imperialists perceived as pirates in the Far East; U-boat packs menacing the Mediterranean and Atlantic; and the similarity between sixteenth--and seventeenth-century privateers and modern-day partisans.
Similarly, the way he urges that the two-natures statement of Chalcedon
could be interpreted would lead to an extreme Nestorianism, also definitively rejected by the ancient ecumenical councils.
Two years after the Council of Chalcedon
(451), which decided the question of the natures of Christ based on a treatise he allegedly authored, Leo wrote a wonderful letter asking if someone could tell him what happened at the council.
As an example, Tilley cited the fifth-century Council of Chalcedon
, which adopted the formula that Christ had "two natures," divine and human, in "one person." Those terms, he suggested, made sense in the context of ancient Greek philosophy, but aren't readily accessible today, so repeating them "runs the real risk of distorting the meaning of the faith."