Chalcophile Element

Chalcophile Element

 

any one of various chemical elements of sulfide ores according to the classification of the Norwegian geochemist V. M. Goldschmidt. Chalcophile elements constitute side groups in the periodic system of elements and include 19 elements: S, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ln, Sn, Sb, Te, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po. Their metals have a specific affinity for S, Se, and Te.

Chalcophile elements make up 0.046 percent of the mass of the earth’s crust; however, because of their ability to accumulate under certain conditions, they form ore deposits, primarily hydro-thermal vein deposits. Sulfides of copper, lead, zinc, and silver in sedimentary rocks form stratiform (blanket) deposits.

References in periodicals archive ?
(1992): Chalcophile element and iridium in continental Cretaceous--Tertiary boundary Clays from the western interior of the U.
This sulfur contained abundant inclusions of pyrite (Fe[S.sub.2]), covellite (CuS), and Cu-As sulfosalts, as well as measurable amounts of Au, Ag, Ga, Ge, Tl, and other chalcophile elements. The high enrichment factors of these metals suggested that they originated from magma via volcanic degassing.
The lithophile elements (Ca) and a number of chalcophile elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Ag, and Cd) exhibit moderate correlations between each other (Figure 4(a)), thus suggesting that they share the same source.
Unsurprisingly, nearly the same suite of trace lithophile and chalcophile elements as was measured in sulfur was observed in the analyzed sulfur leachates.
Other chalcophile elements, such as Cd, Ag, Hg, Se, Te, As, Sb, and Pb, as well as bromine and iodine, have average and minimum concentrations in sulfur that exceed their concentrations in rock particles ("5% rock") by at least 1-2 orders of magnitude.
Additionally, the "enrichment factor conception" does not allow distinguishing between the volatile transport of elements and the transport of condensed volatile species that were gaseous at higher temperatures but condensed somewhere in a fumarolic channel beneath the surface (e.g., sulfides and chlorides of chalcophile elements).
All other elements, including the chalcophile elements of Cu and Zn, originated from rock particles.
Highly Siderophile and Strongly Chalcophile Elements in High-Temperature Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry
Mineralogists and geochemists explore highly siderophile elements, which strongly prefer metal, and chalcophile elements, which strongly prefer sulfide, relative to silicate or oxide phases, at very high temperatures.
Samples from near the lower and upper contacts of the bentonite bed show also a significant rise in the content of chalcophile elements such as As and Pb, simultaneously with peak S and Fe concentrations.
Some siderophile and chalcophile elements such as Au and the Platinum Group elements (PGE's) are more strongly partitioned into immiscible sulfide liquid than Ni.
Characterized by a high content of U, Mo, V and some chalcophile elements, the complex is a potential resource of a variety of metals (Hade & Soesoo 2014).