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Related to Chaldeans: nebuchadnezzar, Ur of the Chaldeans
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Semitic stock-raising tribes who settled in the outlying regions of Babylonia, on the northwestern coast of the Persian Gulf, in the first half of the first millennium B.C.

The Chaldeans were probably of Aramean origin; however, there is some evidence to suggest that they originated in southern Arabia. What language the Chaldeans spoke is open to dispute, since the aristocracy rapidly assimilated with the Babylonians and bore Accadian names. Moreover, there are no written texts that can be positively identified as Chaldean. In the Bible and in post-biblical tradition, a Baby Ionian-Aramaic dialect is referred to as the Chaldean language.

The Chaldeans who settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia gradually adopted a settled way of life and formed a series of principalities, such as Bit-Yakin. Most of these principalities were named after their founders. Beginning in the ninth century B.C., the Chaldeans and Elam fought Assyria for control of Babylon. In the second half of the eighth century and in the early seventh century, Chaldean princes managed to seize the Babylonian throne a number of times. Each time, however, the Chaldeans were driven out by the Assyrians. From 626 B.C. to 538 B.C. the Chaldean dynasty ruled Babylon. This dynasty, which included Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II, established the New Babylonian Empire.

In ancient Greece and Rome, priests and fortune-tellers of Babylonian origin were called Chaldeans. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the term “Chaldeans” was erroneously applied to the Sumerians.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nahmanides explains that researchers have revealed that the city of Cutha is not in Sumer, the land of Chaldeans, but is, in fact, located in the northern Mesopotamian region of Aram between Haran and Assyria.
Although President Rohani had promised better treatment of the countries' minorities, Bet-Kelia criticized the actions of the government toward his community, describing what he called discrimination and legal restrictions on Assyrian and Chaldean Christians as well as other religious minorities.
Caption: In August 2014, more than 120,000 Chaldean Christians fled Qaraqosh, Iraq's largest Christian city, as the murderous forces of the Islamic State advanced.
Originating in an international workshop in Leipzig in 2010, this volume provides the papers presented at that event, which focused on research results regarding nomadic and settled cultures in an effort to elucidate the history, culture, and religion of Arabian, Chaldean, and Aramean tribes in Babylonia and Palestine in the first millennium BC.
At first, church staff were able to help everyone who came, regardless of religion, but Kassarji said they have recently had to prioritize Chaldeans, as money has run low.
The President also shared the delegation's concerns over lack of representation in the new electoral commission and vowed to make every effort to amend the law so that there is representation inside the electoral commission for Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen and Armenians.
The Chaldeans in Syria doubled to about 30,000 as Iraqi Christians fled there when it was safer.
The Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate is based in Baghdad but many Catholics have left that area since 2000 because of religious persecution.
Chaldeans and Assyrians are minority groups in Iraq who differ ethnically, religiously and linguistically from the Arab and Kurdish populations.
Also on Sunday, Iraqi television, citing a government spokesman, reported that a court in Baghdad had sentenced to death the killer of the Chaldean Christian archbishop of Mosul, Paulos Faraj Rahho, 65, who was kidnapped on February 29 and found dead two weeks later.
Chaldean Catholic Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho of the northern Iraq city of Mosul, who was kidnapped in February by armed attackers, was found dead on March 13, church officials in Baghdad announced.
MOSUL: Gunmen kidnapped the Chaldean Catholic archbishop of Mosul yesterday in the northern Iraqi city and killed his driver and two guards, police said.