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Variables HC (N = 25) CFS (N = 25) FM (N = 25) Age (years) 34.4 (7.9) 34.0 (8.9) 38.6 (8.0) Weight (kg) 68.0 (9.8) 71.6 (12.9) 75.4 (14.3) Height (cm) 167.2 (7.1) 169.1 (5.4) 168.5 (6.0) BMI (kg/[m.sup.2]) 24.3 (3.5) 25.2 (5.1) 26.5 (4.5) Education (years) 16.1 (2.3) ** 13.4 (2.5) ** 13.5 (2.2) ** Pain levela 0.08 (0.28) ** 1 (1.16) * 3.7 (1.8) ** Fatigue levela 0.6 (0.8) ** 3 (1.8) ** 3.2 (2.2) ** Chalder score 5.8 (5.7) ** 25.4 (3.8) ** 21.1 (5) * FIQ -- -- 56.9 (13) Data are presented as means (SD).
Linking negative emotions with feelings of fatigue is consistent with those authors who have associated this feeling mainly with anxious and depressive symptoms (Brown & Kroenke, 2009; Demyttenaere et al., 2005; Schneider, 1997; Swindle et al., 2001; Tylee et al., 1999; Walker et al., 1993; Wessely, Chalder, Hirsch, Wallace, & Wright,, 1996) and highlights the importance of considering fatigue not only as a somatic but also emotional manifestation among people suffering from a clinical disorder.
Chalder, "Incidence, prognosis, and risk factors for fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: a prospective community study," Pediatrics, vol.
The Chalder Fatigue Scale [18] (ChFS) is an 11-item questionnaire which assesses physical and mental symptoms of fatigue.
Change in Key Outcomes Qigong Control Chalder Fatigue Scale total score -38.5% -14.3% SF-12 mental component score 31.5% 1.5% SF-12 physical component score 13.5% 7.0% Body-Mind-Spirit Integrative Well-Being score 23.0% 1.1% Note: Based on a randomized trial of 154 patients aged 18-55 years.
Cross-cultural validation of the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire in Brazilian primary care.
Although the effects of CBT and GET on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are still rather moderate, "the bottom line is that patients given CBT and GET showed more improvement than the other two groups," said Trudie Chalder, Ph.D., one of the study authors and professor of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy at King's College London (Lancet 2011 Feb.
Although the effects of CBT and GET on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are still rather moderate, "the bottom line is that patients given CBT and GET showed more improvement than the other two groups," said Trudie Chalder, Ph.D., one of the study's authors and a professor of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy at King's College London (Lancet 2011 Feb.
"It is very encouraging that we have found not one but two treatments that are similarly helpful to patients," said Trudie Chalder from King's College London, who worked on the study and published its findings in the Lancet medical journal on Friday.
Table 1: Fatigue scales developed between the years 1989 and 2006 * FSS (Fatigue Severity Scale, Krupp et al, 1989) * FAI (Fatigue Assessment Instrument, Schwartz et al, 1993) * FRS (Fatigue Rating Scale, Chalder et al, 1993) * FIS (Fatigue Impact Scale, Fisk et al, 1994) * MFI (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Smets et al, 1995) * MS-FSS (MS-Specific Fatigue-Severity Scale, Krupp et al, 1995) * MAF (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, Schwartz et al, 1996) * CIS (Checklist of Individual Strength, Vercoulen et al, 1996) * FAMS (Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis, Cella et al, 1996) * MFIS (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, MS Council, 1998) * FDS (Fatigue Descriptive Scale, Iriarte et al, 1999) * WEIMuS (Wurzburger Erschopfungsinventar bei MS, Flachenecker et al, 2006)
(93.) Kennedy T, Roger J, Darnley S, Seed P, Wessely S, Chalder T.