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Challenger, U.S. space shuttle. It exploded (Jan. 28, 1986) 73 seconds into its tenth flight, killing all seven crew members, including the first civilian in space, schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe. The disaster was caused by the faulty design of a gasket (the O-ring seal). As dramatically demonstrated by Richard Feynman, a member of the presidential commission appointed to investigate the accident, the elastic O-ring did not respond as expected because of the cold temperature (30℉/-1℃) at launch time. (At a news conference, Feynman illustrated the loss of elasticity by dropping an O-ring into a glass of cold water.) As a result of the explosion, the United States did not send astronauts into space for almost three years as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration redesigned a number of features of the space shuttle.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a three-masted English corvette with sail rigging and an 885-kilowatt (1200-hp) auxiliary engine. The Challenger was 62.5 m long and had a displacement of 2,300 tons.

The Challenger was refitted in 1872 into an oceanographic vessel for hydrologic, geological, chemical, biological, and meteorological research. Commanded by Captain G. Nares, the Challenger made a round-the-world cruise from 1872 to 1876, carrying an expedition headed by C. W. Thomson. The expedition collected data on the physical and chemical characteristics of the water, on bottom relief, and on the geologic structure of the floor of the world ocean.

The Challenger was the first of the world’s oceanographic vessels. A modern US research vessel used for deep-sea drilling, the Glomar Challenger, was named in honor of the Challenger. Built in 1968, the Glomar Challenger has a 7.36-megawatt (10,000-hp) engine. It is 122 m long, has a displacement of 10,500 tons, and can run at a speed of 12 knots.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
* With the widest and quietest cabin, smoothest ride and lowest operating costs in its category, the Challenger 350 aircraft delivers an unrivalled experience
"We created the Oracle Challenger Series to grow the game nationally and support American tennis players as they work through the professional ranks," said Oracle CEO Mark Hurd.
Bombardier recently announced an update on a series of enhancements to the Challenger 350 aircraft, underscoring its position in the super mid-size segment.
Steve Beahm, head of passenger car brands for Dodge, Chrysler, and Fiat, said, 'By bringing back a high-impact colour like Sublime across the 2019 Challenger and Charger lineups, we're continuing to give our enthusiast customers another way to make their muscle cars even more unique when they showcase the legendary Dodge performance attitude.'
The last time Alcantara played a Challenger meet was in 2016.
Thanks to their exceptional cabin comfort, connectivity and reliable performance, both Challenger models have proved a choice among private aviation customers, dominating their respective classes in terms of unit sales.
Because FCA like all OEMs has to be concerned with the fuel efficiency of even cars like the Challenger GT, when AWD capability isn't needed, the front axle is automatically disconnected.
Upon closing of at least two major development projects by Starneth over the next two years, including the GOW project in Jakarta where developer's funding arrangements are awaiting finalisation, Challenger will receive up to USD 6m in fees less a payment of EUR 1.25m related to the cash payment that the company was due to pay to the former Starneth vendors in two equal instalments on 15 January 2017 and 15 April 2017.
TSB, a challenger bank that was created from Lloyds (LSE: LLOY) last year, could acquire more challenger banks.
PRIVATE jet company Naljets has taken delivery of a $25m luxury Challenger 350 aircraft on behalf of an international client.
Try the newest Dodge Challenger -- the one with a 707-horsepower, supercharged Hemi V-8 under the hood.