Chang


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Chang

(chăng) or

Yangtze

(yăng`sē`, yäng`dzŭ`), Mandarin Chang Jiang, longest river of China and of Asia, c.3,880 mi (6,245 km) long, rising in the Tibetan highlands, SW Qinghai prov., W China, and flowing generally E through central China into the East China Sea at Shanghai. The Chang and its tributaries drain more than 750,000 sq mi (1,942,500 sq km). The river passes through one of the world's most populated regions and has long been used as a major trade and transportation route.

The Chang's turbulent upper course, called the Jinsha or Kinsha, is roughly half its total length and flows southeast through forested, steep-walled gorges 2,000–4,000 ft (610–1,220 m) deep. After receiving the Yalong River, its first great tributary, at the Sichuan-Yunnan border, the Chang turns NE toward the Sichuan basin. At Yibin, on the western edge of the Sichuan basin, the river becomes the Chang proper and is joined by the "four rivers of Sichuan" (Min, Tuo, Fou, and Jailing). There is a hydroelectric power plant at Chongqing, on the basin's eastern edge.

Leaving the Sichuan basin, the Chang receives the Wu River and flows through the gorges that extend from Fengjieh to Yichang; temples and pagodas are perched on prominent hills along the gorges. The Three Gorges DamThree Gorges Dam,
607 ft (185 m) high and 7,575 ft (2,309 m) long, on the Chang (Yangtze) River, central Hubei prov., China, 30 mi (48 km) W of Yichang. The largest concrete structure in the world, the dam itself was constructed from 1994 to 2006.
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, 30 mi (48 km) west of Yichang (constructed 1994–2006), is the world's largest concrete structure and hydroelectric station; its construction also flooded the spectacular gorges. The Gezhouba Dam near Yichang also regulates seasonally fluctuating water levels and harnesses the river's hydroelectric potential.

East of Yichang, the Chang enters the lake-studded middle basin of Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi provs., a rich agricultural and industrial region; Wuhan, at the confluence of the Han and Chang, is the principal city. The huge Dongting and Poyang lakes, which receive the Yuan, Zi, and Xiang rivers and the Gan River, respectively, are linked by numerous channels with the Chang and serve as natural overflow reservoirs. Now shallow because of sedimentation, the lakes are less effective as regulators of the Chang's flow. Dikes protect large areas of the river's middle basin from floodwaters. Although the Chang does not often experience the devastating floods that characterize the Huang He (Yellow River), it has occasionally caused wide damage; great floods occurred in 1931, 1954, and 1998. The fertile middle basin is China's most productive agricultural region; rice is the main crop.

The river enters the East China Sea through the extensive, ever-expanding delta region of Anhui and Jiangsu provs. Dikes have been built to reclaim coastal marshes and create additional farmland. The Chang carries its greatest volume during the summer rainy season. It is navigable for oceangoing vessels to Wuhan, c.600 mi (970 km) upstream; during the summer high-water period, Yichang, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) upstream, is the head of navigation.

The South-to-North Water Diversion Project transfers water from the Chang and its tributaries to the Huang HeHuang He,
 Hwang Ho
, or Yellow River,
great river of N China, c.3,000 mi (4,830 km) long, rising in the twin lakes Gyaring and Ngoring in the Kunlun Mts., NW Qinghai prov.
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, which often runs dry from overuse, and to Beijing, Tianjin, and other northern cities and provinces. The eastern route brings water from the lower Chang to the Huang He, Shandong prov., Tianjin, and other areas utilizing in part sections of the Grand CanalGrand Canal,
Chinese Da Yunhe [large transit river], longest in the world, extending c.1,000 mi (1,600 km) from Beijing to Hangzhou, E China, and forming an important north-south waterway on the North China Plain. The canal was started in the 6th cent. B.C.
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, and a central route connects the Han (a tributary of the Chang) to the Huang He, Beijing, Tianjin, and other areas. A third, western route, linking the headwaters of the Chang to those of the Huang He, is planned.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chang

 

(also chank), an Uzbek and Tadzhik hammered stringed instrument; a type of dulcimer. The chang is a flat, wooden, trapezoidal box and is sometimes mounted on small legs; some instruments have round sound holes in the upper soundboard. The metal strings are grouped in threes, except for the bass string, which is single. The instrument produces a bright tone with a lasting resonance and is played by striking the strings with flexible bamboo or wooden sticks. Tempered changs, with a chromatic range, are primarily used in small ensembles, but they also appear in modern folk orchestras in the Uzbek SSR and the Tadzhik SSR. Besides the standard version, there are piccolo, tenor, and bass changs.

REFERENCE

Karomatov, F. Uzbekskaia instrumental’naia muzyka. Tashkent, 1972. Page 149.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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