Zhang Xueliang(jäng` shüĕ`-lyäng`), 1898–2001, Chinese warlordwarlord,
in modern Chinese history, autonomous regional military commander. In the political chaos following the death (1916) of republican China's first president and commander in chief, Yüan Shih-kai, central authority fell to the provincial military governors and
..... Click the link for more information. , son of Chang Tso-linChang Tso-lin
, 1873–1928, Chinese general. Chang was of humble birth. As the leader of a unit of Manchurian militia he assisted (1904–5) the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War. He held various military posts under the Chinese republic.
..... Click the link for more information. . On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name. Chang supported Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.
After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
..... Click the link for more information. against a rebellious northern army in 1929–30 and was made vice commander in chief of all Chinese forces and a member of the central political council. Ousted (1931) by the Japanese from Manchuria, he suffered a loss of prestige. In 1936, with the help of Chinese Communists, he had Chiang kidnapped at Xi'an, to compel cooperation between the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
..... Click the link for more information. and the Communists and to force a declaration of war against Japan. Chiang Kai-shek was released unconditionally a few weeks later. Chang, who then surrendered to Chiang, was tried and sentenced for his part in the affair; he was pardoned but kept in custody until 1962. He was taken to Taiwan when the Nationalist regime fled there in 1949.
Born 1898. Chinese military and political figure. Son of the warlord Chang Tso-Lin.
After his father’s murder in 1928, Chang Hsüeh-liang became ruler of the three northeastern provinces that make up Manchuria; in December 1928 he recognized the authority of the Kuomintang government in Nanking. In 1931, on orders from Chiang Kai-shek, his army gave up Manchuria to the Japanese without a fight. Chiang Kai-shek made use of Chang’s army in 1935 and 1936 to combat the Chinese Red Army. In 1936, Chang signed a peace agreement with the Chinese Red Army and helped organize the arrest, on Dec. 12,1936, of Chiang Kai-shek, who had arrived in Sian (seeSIAN INCIDENT). After Chiang Kai-shek was released on Dec. 25, 1936, Chang was arrested and imprisoned. In 1946 the Kuomintang took Chang to Taiwan.