Chang Hsüeh-liang

Chang Hsüeh-liang


Zhang Xueliang

(jäng` shüĕ`-lyäng`), 1898–2001, Chinese warlordwarlord,
in modern Chinese history, autonomous regional military commander. In the political chaos following the death (1916) of republican China's first president and commander in chief, Yüan Shih-kai, central authority fell to the provincial military governors and
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, son of Chang Tso-linChang Tso-lin
, 1873–1928, Chinese general. Chang was of humble birth. As the leader of a unit of Manchurian militia he assisted (1904–5) the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War. He held various military posts under the Chinese republic.
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. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name. Chang supported Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 against a rebellious northern army in 1929–30 and was made vice commander in chief of all Chinese forces and a member of the central political council. Ousted (1931) by the Japanese from Manchuria, he suffered a loss of prestige. In 1936, with the help of Chinese Communists, he had Chiang kidnapped at Xi'an, to compel cooperation between the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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 and the Communists and to force a declaration of war against Japan. Chiang Kai-shek was released unconditionally a few weeks later. Chang, who then surrendered to Chiang, was tried and sentenced for his part in the affair; he was pardoned but kept in custody until 1962. He was taken to Taiwan when the Nationalist regime fled there in 1949.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chang Hsüeh-Liang


Born 1898. Chinese military and political figure. Son of the warlord Chang Tso-Lin.

After his father’s murder in 1928, Chang Hsüeh-liang became ruler of the three northeastern provinces that make up Manchuria; in December 1928 he recognized the authority of the Kuomintang government in Nanking. In 1931, on orders from Chiang Kai-shek, his army gave up Manchuria to the Japanese without a fight. Chiang Kai-shek made use of Chang’s army in 1935 and 1936 to combat the Chinese Red Army. In 1936, Chang signed a peace agreement with the Chinese Red Army and helped organize the arrest, on Dec. 12,1936, of Chiang Kai-shek, who had arrived in Sian (seeSIAN INCIDENT). After Chiang Kai-shek was released on Dec. 25, 1936, Chang was arrested and imprisoned. In 1946 the Kuomintang took Chang to Taiwan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.