Channel Islands


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Related to Channel Islands: Channel Islands National Park

Channel Islands,

archipelago (2005 est. pop. 156,000), 75 sq mi (194 sq km), 10 mi (16 km) off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. The main islands are JerseyJersey
, island (2005 est. pop. 90,800), 45 sq mi (117 sq km), in the English Channel, largest of the Channel Islands, which are dependencies of the British crown. It is 15 mi (24 km) from the Normandy coast of France and SE of Guernsey. Saint Helier, the capital, is on St.
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, GuernseyGuernsey
, island, 25 sq mi (65 sq km), in the English Channel, second largest of the Channel Islands. Guernsey bailiwick (2005 est. pop. 65,000) includes Alderney, Sark, Herm, Brechou, Jethou, and smaller islands.
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, AlderneyAlderney
, Fr. Aurigny , anc. Riduna, island (1991 pop. 2,297), c.3 sq mi (7.7 sq km), in the English Channel, northernmost of the larger Channel Islands. It is separated from the French coast and from the other islands by swift tidal races.
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, and SarkSark,
Fr. Sercq (sĕrk), island (1991 pop. 575), 2 sq mi (5 sq km), in the English Channel, E of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. It is divided into Great Sark and Little Sark, which are connected by a natural causeway, the Coupée.
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, and there are several smaller islands, including Herm, Jethou, and Lithou; all the islands are dependencies of the British crown. The inhabitants have historically been mostly of Norman descent, but on Alderney the stock is mainly English. In recent years many Britons have moved here, attracted by the favorable tax rates and the pleasant island atmosphere. Both French and English are spoken; in addition, a Norman patois and Norman customs are still maintained by many of the natives.

The mild and sunny climate (35–40 in./89–102 cm rainfall a year) and the fertile soil have made agriculture an important part of the islands' economy. Large quantities of vegetables, fruits, and flowers are shipped to English markets, but dairying is the chief agricultural occupation. The famous Jersey and Guernsey breeds of cattle are kept pure by local laws. Financial services and electronics manufacture are growing sectors of the economy, and the islands are a favorite resort of tourists and vacationers. The chief ports are St. HelierSaint Helier
, town (1991 pop. 24,941), capital of Jersey, Channel Islands, Great Britain, on St. Aubin's Bay. The administrative and cultural center of Jersey, St. Helier is also a residential town, resort, and point of export for local produce.
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 (Jersey) and St. Peter PortSaint Peter Port,
town (1991 pop. 16,100), capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands. Its shallow harbor is protected by piers; vegetables, fruits, and flowers are exported. Hauteville House, the residence of Victor Hugo from 1856 to 1870, contains memorials of the author.
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 (Guernsey). Much of the islands' capital and consumer goods, raw materials, fuels, and foodstuffs are imported.

The islands are divided into two administrative bailiwicks, one of which, Jersey, has more than half the total population. The other, Guernsey, includes all the islands except Jersey. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by a lieutenant governor in each bailiwick, is the head of state. Each government is headed by the chief minister, who is elected by the bailiwick's legislature. Jersey's 58-seat Assembly of the States consists of both elected and appointed members. Members of Guernsey's 45-seat States of Deliberation are popularly elected for four years.

Christianization took place in the 6th cent., largely through the efforts of St. Helier and St. Sampson. In the 10th cent. the islands became possessions of the duke of Normandy. At the Norman conquest they were joined to the English crown; they remained under the control of King John and England in 1204 when Philip II of France confiscated the duchy of Normandy. The French attempted unsuccessfully to reestablish control in the 14th cent. and later. In World War II, after the evacuation of some 10,000 military and civilian personnel, the islands were occupied (1940) by German forces.

Bibliography

See study by J. Uttley (1966).


See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
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Channel Islands

or

Santa Barbara Islands

(săn`tə bär`brə, –bərə), chain of eight rugged islands and many islets, extending c.150 mi (240 km) along the S Calif. coast from Point Conception to San Diego. The islands were visited in 1542 by Juan Rodriguez CabrilloCabrillo, Juan Rodríguez
, Port. João Rodrigues Cabrilho, d. 1543, Spanish conquistador and discoverer of California, b. Portugal. In 1520 he landed in Mexico with Pánfilo de Narváez and joined in the conquests of Mexico and Guatemala.
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, a Portuguese explorer in the service of Spain. They are located from 13 to 68 mi (21–109 km) west of the mainland. Santa Cruz (98 sq mi/254 sq km) is the largest island of the chain. Santa Catalina Island is the most economically developed of the islands and is a popular tourist center. The island fox and the Santa Cruz Island pine are native to the area; large numbers of sea mammals inhabit the waters around the islands, including sea-elephant and sea-lion herds and the California gray whale. Anacapa, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel constitute Channel Islands National Park, est. as a national monument 1938; designated a national park 1980 (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (table)).
References in periodicals archive ?
As the first recreational harbor in Ventura County, Channel Islands Harbor has become one of the largest in California.
The firm has hired Jonathan Langan as chief financial officer for the bank in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Any sort of visit to the UK mainland by Channel Islands residents will require them to have holiday insurance cover.
The accomplishment of the conditional acquisition of Aviation Beauport will add four aircraft into the managed fleet of Gama Aviation, as well as give light aircraft to its charter fleet and expand its property portfolio with the lone FBO facility of the Channel Islands.
The new route will be a first between Scotland and the Channel Islands in some years.
It was in 1204 that King John (great-great-grandson of William) lost Normandy to the French king, bringing about a change in status for the Channel Islands, which remained loyal to the English Crown from then on.
Channel Islands Newsagents was put up for sale in March by owner Guiton Group, which publishes the island's Jersey Evening Post.
1 -- color) Students gather in one of the many courtyards at Cal State University, Channel Islands.
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens' involvement with the Channel Islands National Park and the island fox recovery project has continued since 1999.
Kate Faulkner, chief of resource management for the Channel Islands National Park, says the Santa Rosa pigs were wiped out with a force of gun-toting wildlife biologists; a similar method may be used on Santa Cruz.
Where are the relatively obscure Channel Islands and their even lesser-known cousin to the north, the Isle of Man?
The Channel Islands host more than 54% of Europe's offshore captives, according to the EIMS study.

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