charge-coupled device

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charge-coupled device

See CCD.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006

charge-coupled device

[′chärj ¦kəp·əld di′vīs]
A semiconductor device wherein minority charge is stored in a spatially defined depletion region (potential well) at the surface of a semiconductor and is moved about the surface by transferring this charge to similar adjacent wells. Abbreviated CCD.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

charge-coupled device

(CCD) A semiconductor technology used to build light-sensitive electronic devices such as cameras and image scanners. CCDs can be made to detect either colour or black-and-white. Each CCD chip consists of an array of light-sensitive photocells. The photocell is sensitised by giving it an electrical charge prior to exposure.
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CCD sensor

(Charge-Coupled Device sensor) An electronic memory that records the intensity of light as a variable charge. Although mostly replaced by CMOS sensors to capture images in cameras, camcorders and scanners, CCDs are still used in astronomy, microscopy and biomedical imaging because of their excellent sensitivity during long exposures.

CCDs are analog devices. Their charges equate to shades of light for monochrome images or shades of red, green and blue when used with color filters. Devices may use three CCDs, one for each of the red, green and blue colors.

Why Coupled?
The CCD comprises an array of imaging pixels and a matching array of storage pixels that are coupled together. After the imaging array is exposed to light, its charges are quickly transferred to the storage array. While the imaging CCDs are being exposed to the next picture, the storage CCDs from the last picture are being read out a row at a time to the analog-to-digital converters (A/D converters) that transform the voltages into binary data to be processed. Contrast with CMOS sensor. See Bayer pattern, X3, Super CCD, blooming and digital camera.

Charge-Coupling Methods
The storage CCDs are either a separate array (frame transfer) or individual photosites (interline transfer) coupled to each imaging photosite. The charges can be transferred faster with the interline method because each storage component is closer to its imaging counterpart.

CCDs Record Light
In a camera, CCDs take the place of film. They are exposed to light, recording the intensities, or shades, of light as variable charges. In the digital camera above, the variable, analog charges in the CCD are converted to binary data by analog-to-digital converter chips.

CCDs Are Sensitive
This CCD from Jet Propulsion Labs is used in astronomy. Sensing the output of telescopes, it detects ultraviolet light from distant planets. (Image courtesy of JPL's Microdevices Laboratory; Robert M. Brown, photographer)
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References in periodicals archive ?
Tokyo, Japan, Oct 4, 2005 - (JCNN) - Hitachi Kokusai Electric has developed three ultra high-sensitivity surveillance cameras, which are embedded with the company's proprietary imaging device, EM-CCD (electrons multiplying charge coupled device), to enable video and image shootings even at night.
Spectro Analytical Instruments, Inc., introduced its Spectromax benchtop metal analyzer that features high-resolution, multi-matrix charge coupled device detector technology.
A charge coupled device (CCD) camera captures the image and the unit's software program analyzes it for deviations, which are displayed in red on the monitor.
When the robot, equipped with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and a seven-jointed arm, detects the nearest person, it stretches its arm to try to serve the drink to the person.
Current digital cameras and video cameras mostly use charge coupled device (CCD) chips as image sensors.
Instead of many single point measurements, a single line laser snapshot is exposed in a charge coupled device (CCD) camera array.
As with, the original package scanners, these small-item readers rely on charge coupled device (CCD) technology similar to video cameras to read the 2-D bar codes.
Smith, "Experimental Verification of the Charge Coupled Device Concept" The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol.
The SDR-4X, which is 58 centimeters high and weighs 6.5 kilograms, has two charge coupled device (CCD) color cameras and seven sound sensors embedded in its head, 38 joints in its body and other devices.
Using a solid state charge coupled device (CCD) instead of conventional photomultiplier detectors, the Assure desktop spectrometer provides many of the analytical operations of larger laboratory units with greater flexibility and lower cost.