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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


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(1) (CRunTime) See runtime library.

(2) (Cathode Ray Tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons.

In the past, CRT was a popular term for a computer display terminal. Today, "monitor" is the correct term as computer displays have long since migrated from CRTs to LCD panels (see flat panel display). Likewise, TV sets no longer use CRTs (see flat panel TV).

Electrons and Phosphors
The CRT works by heating a cathode which causes electrons to flow. Accelerating and focusing anodes turn the electrons into a fine beam that is directed to the phosphors by magnetic fields that are generated by steering coils. The viewing end of a color CRT tube is coated with red, green and blue phosphor dots, and separate "electron guns" bombard their respective colors a line at a time in a prescribed sequence (see raster scan).

The resulting color displayed on screen is derived by the intensity of the electron beams as they strike the red, green and blue phosphors and cause them to glow at each pixel location. See cathode and vacuum tube.

Back to the 1800s
The first oscilloscope tube was developed in 1897 by German scientist Ferdinand Braun. Using a fluorescent screen and still known as a "Braun tube" in Germany, his "cathode-ray oscilloscope" was used to display the patterns of electronic signals. Although better known for inventing the CRT, Braun shared the Nobel Prize in 1909 with Guglielmo Marconi for wireless telegraphy.

The Braun Tube - 1897
Using a bellows, it took a strong man to evacuate the air from this tube. The successor to Sir William Crookes' vacuum tubes some 20 years earlier, these tubes used unheated "cold" cathodes that required a huge voltage. (Image courtesy of O'Neill's Electronic Museum)

Bulky But Magic in the 1950s
Although clunky by comparison to today's color screens, millions of people were thrilled when they first watched CRT-based monochrome TV. (Image courtesy of Vintage Vibe,

CRT vs. Flat Panel
The CRT gave way to LCD panels in the late 1990s, taking less space, less power and emitting less radiation. This high-quality EIZO LCD monitor was state-of-the-art in 1999. (Image courtesy of EIZO Nanao Technologies Inc.)

CRT Front Projection
The first data and TV projectors used CRTs, and although mostly abandoned, they continue to provide the highest quality. In 2006, this home theater was built by a serious video enthusiast. See front-projection TV. (Images courtesy of Kal of

CRT Rear Projection
Although big and bulky, the Pioneer Elite Pro-107 was perhaps the best CRT-based rear-projection TV ever made. Still working fine after 17 years, this unit was sold for a pittance in 2010. See rear-projection TV.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Fourth, if the debt was placed on the property within five years of the date of transfer, the charitable remainder trust could be treated as receiving debt-financed income.
(8s) (See Q 7957 regarding taxation of a charitable trust.) A charitable remainder trust must pay a 100% excise tax on its unrelated business taxable income (UBTI).
Deductions reduce the short- and long-term amounts, resulting in a "net short-term capital gain (loss)" and a "net long-term capital gain (loss)." Charitable remainder trust returns reported total net capital gains of $8.7 billion in 2007 (Figure D).
Question--How is a charitable lead trust different from a charitable remainder trust?
The Ruling holds that a Charitable Remainder Trust may pay amounts to a Special Needs Trust for the life of an individual if (1) the individual is "financially disabled" (meaning they're unable to manage their financial affairs), and (2) the CRT and SNT combination conforms to one of the following three formats:
The client then transfers (a) income tax deduction generated savings (26) and/or (b) a portion of the income retained from the charitable remainder trust as a gift to one or more individuals.
A charitable remainder trust cannot own a sole proprietorship.
Gifts that Offer Income for Life--Such gifts may include a charitable gift annuity, charitable remainder trust, charitable lead trust, or pooled income fund.
But if non-charitable beneficiaries receive annuity or unitrust payments for a specified period (e.g., "for 10 years" or "for life") and afterwards the charity receives the remaining corpus, the trust is called a charitable remainder trust, where the charity receives what remains after the non-charitable beneficiary's interest ends, the "remainder interest."
With a type of charitable remainder trust known as a "flip trust," you can make a gift for the future benefit of your favorite charitable organization, obtain an income-tax deduction, avoid capital gains tax and receive an income stream for life.
A charitable remainder trust (CRT) can be an excellent vehicle for reducing or eliminating a concentrated stock position without triggering a capital-gains tax on the sale.