Charles, Jacques Alexandre César

Charles, Jacques Alexandre César

(zhäk älĕksäN`drə sāzär` shärl), 1746–1823, French physicist. He confirmed Benjamin Franklin's electrical experiments, became interested in aeronautics, and was the first to use hydrogen gas in balloons. In this type of balloon, known as the Charlière, he made an ascent in 1783 of almost 2 mi (3.2 km). He became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, Paris. Inventor of a thermometric hydrometer, he also improved various devices, the Gravesande heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer among others, and anticipated Gay-Lussac's law of the expansion of gases. For Charles's law, see gas lawsgas laws,
physical laws describing the behavior of a gas under various conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature. Experimental results indicate that all real gases behave in approximately the same manner, having their volume reduced by about the same proportion of the
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