Charles Emmanuel I,
1562–1630, duke of Savoy (1580–1630), son and successor of Emmanuel Philibert
. He continued his father's efforts to recover territories lost to the duchy, but his reckless, although cunning, diplomacy undermined many of the sound economic and political achievements of the previous decades. His goal to incorporate Geneva, Saluzzo, and Montferrat
into Savoy caused him to oscillate in his alliances between France and Spain. In the long run he met with only limited success. In 1602 he tried unsuccessfully to reconquer Geneva by surprise attack. He recovered Saluzzo from the French by the Treaty of Lyons (1601), giving up, in exchange, Bresse, Bugey, Gex, and Pinerolo, but he lost Saluzzo just before his death. He waged war over the succession to Montferrat for much of the first quarter of the 16th cent. At the time of his death his duchy was overrun by the French. Charles Emmanuel, called the Great, was succeeded by his son, Victor Amadeus I.