Charles VI


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Charles VI

, Holy Roman emperor

Charles VI, 1685–1740, Holy Roman emperor (1711–40), king of Bohemia (1711–40) and, as Charles III, king of Hungary (1712–40); brother and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. Charles was the last Holy Roman emperor of the direct Hapsburg line. In 1700 he was designated successor in Spain to King Charles II, who was childless. On his deathbed, however, Charles II left his throne to Philip of Anjou (Philip V), grandson of King Louis XIV of France; Philip was proclaimed king in Nov., 1700. War broke out immediately against Louis XIV and Philip (see Spanish Succession, War of the). Although Charles, with the aid of British troops, invaded Spain and proclaimed himself king as Charles III in 1704, he was able to maintain himself only in Catalonia, with his capital at Barcelona.

When Charles's brother Joseph I died (1711), Charles succeeded him as Holy Roman emperor. His accession led to England's withdrawal from the war since the English did not wish to see the reunification of the empire of Charles V. A treaty (see Utrecht, Peace of; 1713) was signed between France and Charles's former allies, Holland and England. Charles continued fighting. He finally concluded peace in 1714. By the terms of the peace Philip V remained king of Spain and Charles received most of the Spanish possessions in the Low Countries and in Italy. Philip's subsequent attempt to overthrow the settlement in Italy resulted (1718) in the formation of the Quadruple Alliance against him. The war was ended by the Treaty of The Hague (1720), which repeated the terms of 1713–14, except that Charles obtained Sicily from Savoy in exchange for Sardinia.

In E Europe, Charles continued to defend his lands against Turkish invasions (1716–18). In a campaign against the Turks the imperial commander Eugene of Savoy obtained for Hungary the Banat and N Serbia. Charles was later forced to return these lands to the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) after several defeats in the Turkish war of 1736–39. Near the end of his reign in the War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) Charles was again involved in a conflict with France and Spain. By the Treaty of Vienna (1738) he was forced to give up Sicily and Naples to Spain, but received Parma and Piacenza.

Since Charles had no male heirs, one of his chief concerns was to secure the succession to the Hapsburg lands for his daughter, Maria Theresa. His last years were spent in an effort to win European approval of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, which made Maria Theresa his heir. Although the Pragmatic Sanction was guaranteed by the Treaty of Vienna, the succession was contested on his death (see Austrian Succession, War of the). Charles was a patron of learning and the arts, particularly of music. A mercantilist, he encouraged commerce and industry.


Charles VI

, king of France
Charles VI (Charles the Mad or Charles the Well Beloved), 1368–1422, king of France (1380–1422), son and successor of King Charles V. During his minority he was under the tutelage of his uncles (particularly Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy), whose policies drained the royal treasury and provoked popular uprisings in France and in Flanders. Charles freed himself of this influence in 1388, took as his counselor his brother Louis, duc d'Orléans, and recalled his father's ministers, the Marmousets. After 1392, Charles suffered from recurrent insanity and was not active in the government. Philip of Burgundy returned to power. His rule was challenged by Louis d'Orléans and the conflict eventually resulted in war between Philip's successor, John the Fearless, and supporters of the Orleanists, known as Armagnacs (see Armagnacs and Burgundians). The struggle was complicated by the invasion of France by King Henry V of England. In 1420, under the influence of the Burgundians, who were allied with Henry V and his wife Isabel of Bavaria, Charles accepted the Treaty of Troyes, recognizing Henry V as his successor.
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Charles VI

1. known as Charles the Mad or Charles the Well-Beloved. 1368- -1422, king of France (1380--1422): defeated by Henry V of England at Agincourt (1415), he was forced by the Treaty of Troyes (1420) to recognize Henry as his successor
2. 1685--1740, Holy Roman Emperor (1711--40). His claim to the Spanish throne (1700) led to the War of the Spanish Succession
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(25) This comes near the end of a long exhortation for peace between France and England, wherein Charles VI is figured as holy balm transformed into a precious carbuncle, and Richard II as the lodestone transformed into diamond:
Surviving in approximately 130 manuscripts, the GCF in its final form describes a chain of royal lives from the fall of Troy to the reign of Charles VI in the 1380s.
The strength of Hedeman's study rests in part on her reliance on the complete, original manuscripts, whereas much previous scholarship has been based on an abridged edition with a different title, Les demandes faites par le roi Charles VI touchant son etat et le gouvernement de sa personne, avec les reponses de Pierre Salmon, son secretaire et familier.
An important exception is Taillevent, the much referred to author of Le Viandier and the chef to Phillipe VI, Charles V, and Charles VI in fourteenth-century France.
Worst party would be the costume ball given by Charles VI of France in 1393 at which the Duc d'Orleans accidentally set fire to six guests.
In 1422, soon after the death of his father, Charles VI, he had been crowned at Poitiers by the archbishop of Rheims.
From Jordan's opening reference to Charles VI, the fourteenth-century king who expelled Jews from France and who is the subject of Halevy's opera Charles VI of 1843, Jordan brings together both elusive and concrete manifestations of Halevy's ties to the Jewish community and the faith of his father, a Talmudic scholar and Hebrew poet-translator.
Their ultimate destination was the imperial court in Vienna, where they would attempt to meet in person with their sovereign overlord, ageing Habsburg emperor Charles VI, hoping that he would rescind a treaty, recently concluded with the Benedictine abbey of St Blasien, that had manumitted all abbatial serfs domiciled in the county.(2) There were many and complex reasons why these peasant delegates should have wished the repeal of a manumission treaty.
Word for word, this is a conclusion that might equally be derived from the function of music (sacred and secular) during the long reign of Ferdinand's great-grandson, Charles VI, which brought the High Baroque era in Vienna to an end in 1740.
Educated at the University of Paris, Chartier entered the royal service, acting as secretary and notary to both Charles VI and the dauphin, later Charles VII.
Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, was the daughter of Charles VI (1711-1740), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and last of the male line of the Hapsburgs.