Charles X


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Related to Charles X: Louis XVIII

Charles X

, king of France
Charles X, 1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI. He left France (July, 1789) at the outbreak of the French Revolution and became a leading spirit of the émigré party. After his failure to aid the Vendée insurrection, he stayed in England until the Bourbon restoration (1814). During the reign of Louis XVIII he headed the ultraroyalist opposition, which triumphed after the assassination (1820) of Charles's son the duc de Berry. The event caused the fall of the ministry of Élie Decazes and the advent of the comte de Villèle, who continued as chief minister after Charles's accession. Among the many attempts of Charles and Villèle to reestablish elements of the ancien régime, as the prerevolutionary order is called, the law (1825) indemnifying the émigrés for lands confiscated during the Revolution and measures increasing the power of the clergy met with particular disapproval. The bourgeoisie and the liberal press joined in attacking the Villèle cabinet, which resigned in 1827. Villèle's successor, the vicomte de Martignac, vainly tried to steer a middle course, and in 1829 Charles appointed an uncompromising reactionary, Jules Armand de Polignac, as chief minister. To divert attention from internal affairs, Polignac initiated the French venture in Algeria. However, his dissolution (Mar., 1830) of the liberal chamber of deputies and his drastic July Ordinances, establishing rigid control of the press, dissolving the newly elected chamber, and restricting suffrage, resulted in the July Revolution. Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, the comte de Chambord, and embarked for Great Britain. However, the duc d'Orléans, whom Charles had appointed lieutenant general of France, was chosen “king of the French” as Louis Philippe. Charles died in exile, at Gorizia (then in the Austrian Empire).

Bibliography

See studies by V. W. Beach (1967 and 1971).


Charles X

, king of Sweden
Charles X, 1622–60, king of Sweden (1654–60), nephew of Gustavus II. The son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrücken, he brought the house of Wittelsbach to the Swedish throne when his cousin, Queen Christina, abdicated in his favor. Before his accession, Charles had gained both military and diplomatic experience, fighting under Torstensson in the Thirty Years War and serving under Chancellor Oxenstierna. As king, Charles remedied Christina's loss of crown lands by securing their restitution at the Riksdag of 1655. He reopened hostilities with Poland and took Warsaw and Kraków in 1655, but Polish resistance became formidable after the heroic and successful defense of Częstochowa. Charles's position deteriorated quickly. Czar Alexis of Russia invaded Livonia, Frederick III of Denmark declared war (1657) on Sweden, and Frederick William of Brandenburg deserted his alliance with Sweden. Charles hastened to Denmark, crossed the frozen sea to threaten Copenhagen, and forced the Danes to make peace. By the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Sweden's southern boundary was extended to the sea; Denmark ceded to Sweden the provinces of Skåne, Halland, Blekinge, and Bohuslan and also Bornholm and part of Norway. Denmark's refusal to renounce an alliance with the Netherlands caused Charles to resume the war in 1658. England, the Netherlands, and France intervened in favor of Denmark. Charles, after concluding a truce with Russia (1658), began to negotiate for a general peace. He died suddenly before the negotiations were ended and was succeeded by his son, Charles XI. His wars were settled to the advantage of Sweden. By the Treaty of Copenhagen (1660) Sweden regained its four southern provinces from Denmark, and by the Treaty of Kardis (1661) with Russia the two countries returned to the prewar status quo. (For the settlement with Poland, see Oliva, Peace of.) During Charles's reign Sweden lost New Sweden in America to the Dutch.
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Charles X

1. title of Charles Gustavus. 1622--60, king of Sweden, who warred with Poland and Denmark in an attempt to create a unified Baltic state
2. 1757--1836, king of France (1824--30): his attempt to restore absolutism led to his enforced exile
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Charles X's chief minister now was the Prince de Polignac, a former ambassador to London who shared the King's belief in the royal prerogative; he was unpopular both with the Chamber of Deputies and with any who feared for the survival of the constitutional rights granted in 1814.
Tilby's study of the means by which Jules Janin's "intentionally unreadable" writings of the late 1820s gesture not towards the salvation of the Charles x's decaying regime but, though a discrete "idiom of contestation," toward its dissolution.
It was also the site of Charles X's coronation in 1825, and Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of England stayed there on a visit to Paris in 1854.
The defense of freedom and the cult of an idealized Napoleon in such poems as "Lui" and the ode "A la Colonne" brought Hugo in touch with liberal writers on the newspaper Le Globe, and his move toward liberalism was strengthened by Charles X's restrictions on the liberty of the press as well as by the censor's prohibiting the performance of his play Marion de Lorme (1829), the story of a courtesan purified by love.
The decision of Charles X of Sweden to join the fray in 1655 brought disaster upon the Commonwealth.