Charles the Bold(redirected from Charles le Temeraire)
Charles the Bold
See the chronicles of Philippe de Comines; biography by R. Vaughan (1974); J. L. A. Calmette, The Golden Age of Burgundy (tr. 1962); S. Marti et al., ed, Splendour of the Burgundian Court: Charles the Bold (1433–1477) (2009).
Charles the Bold
(Charles Le Téméraire). Born Nov. 10, 1433, in Dijon; died Jan. 5, 1477, near Nancy. Count of Charoláis, duke of Burgundy (from 1467). Son of Philip the Good.
Charles the Bold strove to unify his fragmented holdings and turn Burgundy into a large and powerful state. On a number of occasions (1452–, 1465, 1467, 1468) he suppressed with merciless cruelty the uprisings of the Dutch cities that had become part of the Burgundian state. He was the most dangerous and powerful enemy of Louis XI, who was energetically carrying out the centralization and territorial unification of France. The struggle between the two sovereigns was almost continual. Even while Charles’ father was still alive, he was the actual leader of the coalition against Louis XI (the League of the Public Weal). He forced the French king to cede him cities on the Somme (the treaties of 1465 of Conflans and St. Maur). To secure the support of King Edward IV of England, he married Edward’s sister Margaret. He attempted to seize Alsace (part of which he had received from Sigismund of Tirol, a Hapsburg, in 1469 as a guarantee) and Lorraine (a number of fortresses were transferred to him from Duke Rene II in 1473). However, he lost his allies (including the English king) and was left isolated through the adroitness of Louis XI, who relied on diplomatic negotiations and bribes. In the Burgundian Wars of 1474–77 (waged against Charles by Switzerland and Lorraine, secretly supported and subsidized by France), Charles was betrayed by mercenaries bribed by Louis XI and died in battle at Nancy.
REFERENCENéret, J. A. Le Téméraire: Charles de Bourgogne. Paris, 1952.
N. A. DENISOVA-KHACHATURIAN