Precisely in order to frustrate the latter aim, Lothar's uncles acted against him, this being particularly true of Charles the Bald. His mouthpiece was Hincmar of Rheims, whose see was close to Lotharingia.(21)
As a trusted agent of Charles the Bald, he was a player in the drama; his views on royal divorce were more flexible when his own royal master was involved than when the wretched Lothar was the subject of scrutiny.(26) What is more, it is very unlikely that Hincmar's lengthy treatise on Lothar's divorce ever circulated; it was quickly overtaken by events and was therefore for contemporaries something of a dead letter.(27)
After all, fully legitimate royal sons bearing prestigious names could be denied a crown, as was Charles the Bald's son, Carloman, while illegitimate royal sons bearing non-kingly names could gain a crown, as did Arnulf, the illegitimate son of the east Frankish King Carloman, in 887-9.(47) The fact remains, however, that the name Hugh was not kingly.
Constant childbearing (eight confinements in twelve years) must surely have contributed to her early death; this great matriarch was only twenty-five when she died.(55) It was no mere form of words when Carolingian priests prayed that the wombs of Carolingian queens would be blessed, as in the ordo for the marriage and crowning of Charles the Bald's daughter, Judith, in 856, which prayed to God to make the newly married couple fruitful.(56) Such prayers were more specifically centred on the female partner in royal marriage in the great ceremony at Soissons in 866, which was effectively a fertility rite for Charles the Bald's wife, Ermentrude.(57)
In the ordo for Charles the Bald's daughter, Judith, the names of Esther and Judith sound sonorous chords.
In Aachen, the palace chapel itself was dedicated to Mary.(104) As Heiric of Auxerre (who had contacts with the Lotharingian royal court) wrote, the Virgin Mary was, in her obedience to God's will, a model of humility for all Christians, one that should inspire all servants of Christ to subject `all the limbs of their body' to His commandments.(105) Something of the potency of such language can be gauged from the fact that Charles the Bald deployed it in representations of his kingship when he invaded Lotharingia after Lothar's death in 869.
In a list of royal names from the Merovingian and Carolingian families to be prayed for, which was entered into the abbey's Liber Memorialis in 862/3, the names of Charles the Bald and his queen Ermentrude are present; Lothar's name is conspicuous by its absence.
Wallace-Hadrill, `A Carolingian Renaissance Prince: The Emperor Charles the Bald', Proc.
It is probable that the text was written for Charles the Bald, though it is possible that it was written for Lothar II himself: see Anton, Furstenspiegel und Herrscherethos, 262-3, 269; L.
Nelson, Charles the Bald (London, 1992), 198-200, 215-20.
Nelson (eds.), Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, 2nd edn (Aldershot, 1990), 38-9.
This is not to say that Theutberga was anointed; the only certain cases of queens being anointed in this period are Charles the Bald's daughter, Judith, and his wife, Ermentrude: Pauline Stafford, `Charles the Bald, Judith and England', in Gibson and Nelson (eds.), Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, 144-6.