Charles III, emperor of the West, king of the East Franks, and king of the West Franks
or Charles the Fat,
839–88, emperor of the West (881–87), king of the East Franks (882–87), and king of the West Franks (884–87); son of Louis the German
, at whose death he inherited Swabia (876). He succeeded to the East Frankish or German kingship after the deaths of his brothers Carloman (880) and Louis the Younger (882), with whom he had shared the kingdom of Louis the German. He had also gained Italy from Carloman and was crowned emperor by Pope John VIII in 881. After the death of the heirs of Charles II
in France, he became (884) West Frankish king, thus reuniting briefly the empire of Charlemagne. A weak ruler, he was unable to protect his lands from invasion and in 886, when he went to relieve Paris, which was besieged by the Norsemen
, he ransomed the city instead of fighting and allowed the invaders to ravage Burgundy. He was deposed in 887 and was succeeded in Germany by Arnulf
and briefly in France by Eudes
Charles III, 839–88, French king (Charles the Fat)
or Charles the Fat,
French king: see Charles III
, emperor of the West.
Charles III, 879–929, French king (Charles the Simple)
(Charles the Simple), 879–929, French king (893–923), son of King Louis II
(Louis the Stammerer). As a child he was excluded from the succession at the death (884) of his half-brother Carloman
and at the deposition (887) of King Charles III
(Charles the Fat), who succeeded Carloman. Instead, Eudes
, count of Paris, succeeded Charles the Fat. In 893, however, Charles was crowned by a party of nobles and prelates and became sole king at the death of Eudes in 898. He put an end to Norse raids by the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911), ceding to the Norse leader Rollo
part of the territory later known as Normandy, and in 911 Charles acquired Lorraine. In 922 some of the barons revolted and crowned Robert I
, brother of Eudes, king. In 923, at the battle of Soissons, Robert was killed, but Charles was defeated. Raoul
of Burgundy was elected king, and Charles was imprisoned.
Charles III, king of Hungary
king of Hungary: see Charles VI
, Holy Roman emperor.
Charles III, king of Naples
(Charles of Durazzo), 1345–86, king of Naples (1381–86) and, as Charles II, of Hungary (1385–86); great-grandson of Charles II of Naples. Adopted as a child by Joanna I
of Naples, he later lived at the court of Louis I of Hungary. In 1380, Pope Urban VI summoned Charles to dethrone Joanna because of her support of the antipope, Clement IV; Joanna repudiated Charles as her heir in favor of Louis of Anjou (see Louis I
, king of Naples). Charles conquered Naples, imprisoned Joanna, and was crowned (1381) by the pope. Joanna died by his order. Charles repulsed attacks on Naples by Louis of Anjou. In 1385, elected king of Hungary over Sigismund
, Charles was crowned but was soon assassinated. He was succeeded in Naples by his son, Lancelot, and in Hungary by Sigismund.
Charles III, king of Navarre
Charles III (Charles the Good), 1361–1425, king of Navarre (1387–1425), count of Évreux; son and successor of Charles II. He settled (1404) his inherited differences with France and later tried to negotiate between the Armagnacs and Burgundians. His reign was peaceful and beneficent. His daughter Blanche and her husband, John (later John II of Aragón), succeeded him.
Charles III, king of Spain, and of Naples and Sicily
1716–88, king of Spain (1759–88) and of Naples and Sicily (1735–59), son of Philip V
and Elizabeth Farnese
. Recognized as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1731, he relinquished the duchies to Austria after Spain reconquered (1734) Naples and Sicily in the War of the Polish Succession
. His reign in Naples was beneficent. In 1759 he succeeded his half-brother, Ferdinand VI
, to the Spanish throne, Naples and Sicily passing to his third son, Ferdinand (later Ferdinand I
of the Two Sicilies). Charles at first was neutral in the Seven Years War
, but after concluding the Family Compact
of 1761 with France, he involved Spain in the war in time to share France's defeat. By the Treaty of Paris of 1763 he ceded Florida to England but received Louisiana from France. Territorial disputes with Portugal in the Río de la Plata region were settled by the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777). In the American Revolution, Charles entered (1779) the war on the American side and by the Treaty of Paris of 1783 regained Florida and Minorca. Spain prospered under the rule of Charles, who is regarded as the greatest Bourbon king of Spain and one of the “enlightened despots.” His reign is noted for economic and administrative reforms and for the expulsion of the Jesuits (1767). Charles was ably assisted by Aranda
, Campomanes, and Jovellanos. He was succeeded by his son Charles IV
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