Charophyta

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Related to Charophyte: Charales, Charophyta

Charophyta

[kə′räf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A group of aquatic plants, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in height, that live entirely submerged in water.

Charophyta

 

(also Charophyceae), a phylum of algae or, according to some classifications, a class of green algae. The plants reach 1 m in height and have lateral branches that depart in whorls from multicellular nodes. Each internode consists of one cell, which may become overgrown by a bark of narrow cells that grow upward and downward from the nodes. The cell membranes are sometimes calcified. The lower parts, which are submerged in mud or sand, are colorless and have rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction occurs from various parts of the algae and from unicellular or multicellular tubercles formed on shoots in the ground. Asexual reproduction by spores is absent. The organs of sexual reproduction are multicellular: the oogoniums (spore buds), with one egg cell, and the antheridia. Fertilization occurs on the maternal plant; meiosis occurs when the oogonium sprouts, with three nuclei out of four being destroyed.

There are 300 species, making up six genera. The USSR has 45 species. The algae grow in freshwaters and in areas of seas with decreased salinity. They have the property of softening hard water. Charophyta are known in fossil form from the Devonian.

References in periodicals archive ?
The opposing opinion favours somewhat brackish water in the Khovanshchinian Sea based on the wide distribution of charophytes (Samoilova 1954).
Oospore dimensions and wall ornamentation patterns in Swedish charophytes.
We recognize that the morphological characters of charophyte species often vary markedly, which can make the identification of these species difficult even if one is fairly acquainted with the taxonomy of this group.
Submerged macrophyte pioneers are mainly charophytes (especially Chara vulgaris and C.
2013), to the best of our knowledge, there is only a single study on charophyte communities (Libbert and Walter, 1985).
Although it may eventually be determined which charophyte is "closest" to primitive land plants, in terms of molecular-genetic data, we must bear in mind that we are looking, in all these forms, at extant plants (as representatives of ancestral forms), not at the actual ancestors of land plants.
However, no coefficients of conservatism were given to non-native species and native charophytes.
The permeability of ammonia, methylamine, and ethylamine in the charophyte Chara corralina (C.
The habitat hosted a large number of charophyte species and was also characterized by the presence of some higher plants.
The Klunas fossil fish locality on the right bank of the Skujaine River corresponds to the mainly clastic deposits of the Tervete Formation (Fm; coincides approximately with the trachytera and possibly postera conodont zones of the Standard Conodont Zonation, the Famennian Stage of the Upper Devonian), and yields a rich assemblage of fossils represented by fish, charophyte algae and vascular plant remains, as well as rare trace fossils.