1814), who viewed himself as an emissary of the Gra in the anti-Chasidic crusade, published attacks on Chasidism accusing the movement of claiming its founder was a "divine man," whose teachings obviated the need for studying Talmud.
There seems to be a relationship between Passover--with its yearning for Elijah, herald of the messianic era--and certain key events in the Gra's war against Chasidism. The campaign began during the intermediate days of Passover in 1772.
Reliance on such interpretations of this passage from Exodus remains central in Chasidism's self understanding.
In particular see, 204-211, in which Ben-Sasson argues that some of the Gra's commentary on the Book of Proverbs uses language that is similar to anti-Chasidic tracts emanating from his circle in Vilna and certain commentaries express his revulsion toward the tzaddik in Chasidism. Lamm concurs that this "is quite possible, even probable." (Torah For Torah's Sake, 333).
Militantly rationalistic, Dik was convinced early that the twin curses of Jewish life in Eastern Europe were Chasidism and the refusal of Jews to acquire Western education.
They wanted not the abolition of the Law, but a return to what they perceived to be the pristine practice of Judaism, freed of the mystical accretions of Chasidism, and the primitive superstitions licensed by "folk custom." They desired a return to decorum, rationality, and practical good conduct, seeing the spiritual purpose of Judaism as inculcating faith in a true God rather than breeding fear of imaginary demons; of building a Jewish moral character, which expressed itself in productive daily life and virtuous communal intercourse.
[achieved] a preeminent position in Jewish piety and religious thought by the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries." (1) Berger is referring to kabbalah, particularly Lurianic kabbalah, which is the core of Chasidism, including Chabad.
Indeed, even the Mitnagdim, the Orthodox who so strongly opposed Chasidism at its inception some three centuries ago, accepted and embraced kabbalah and were represented among its leading scholars, including the Vilna Gaon.
Believing in kabbalah, they believe in Chasidism, especially its most successful exponent, Chabad.
We must remember that fear of claims for a false messiah -- it was not long since Shabbtai Zvi -- was the key factor in the opposition of the Mitnagdim to Chasidism. (6)
(7) As Idel has pointed out, the Chasidic tzaddik's unio mystica (mystical union with God) is based on Divine immanence, which was the Chasidic doctrine that was a key factor in the challenge of the Vilna Gaon and other Mitnagdim to Chasidism. (8) From the Lurianic doctrine of immanence as adopted and understood by Chasidism, it is a short step to the Chasidic doctrine of the Tzaddik's (the Rebbe's) ability to achieve mystical union (unio mystica) with God, and -- from there -- to the Rebbe's divine essence and status as messiah, which completes the implications of the Chasidic doctrine of immanence in terms of the Rebbe's relationship with God as part of the Divine unity.
In sum, if most of Orthodox Jewry, for centuries, have embraced kabbalah and Chasidism, which is its current embodiment, as a fresh new source of Jewish spirituality, it will be very difficult to show them convincingly that the claims made for the Rebbe are clearly false and outside any legitimate boundaries of Orthodoxy.