Cheboksary(redirected from Cheboxary)
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Cheboksary(chĕbəksä`rē), city (1989 pop. 420,000), capital of Chuvash Republic, NW European Russia, a port on the Volga River. Both a heavy industrial and an agricultural region, it is the site of a hydroelectric station. Founded in the 16th cent. as a fortress, the city has a 17th-century cathedral.
(in Chuvash, Shupashkar), the capital of the Chuvash ASSR. Situated on the right bank of the Volga. A river port and highway junction, Cheboksary is the terminus of a 103km branch line of the Moscow-Kazan railroad line; it has an airport. Population, 292,000 (1977; 5,000 in 1897, 9,000 in 1926, 31,000 in 1939, 104,000 in 1959, 216,000 in 1970). Cheboksary is divided into three urban districts.
First mentioned in 1469, Cheboksary became a fortress of the Muscovite state in 1555. In 1611 and 1612 the residents of the city fought in the people’s volunteer corps of Minin and Pozharskii. In the late 17th and the 18th century the city was an important commercial center of the Volga Region. Cheboksary became a district capital of Kazan Province in 1781. Soviet power was established in the city on Oct. 30 (Nov. 12), 1917. Cheboksary became the administrative center of Chuvash Autonomous Oblast in 1920 and the capital of the Chuvash ASSR in 1925.
In the Soviet period Cheboksary has become a major industrial and cultural center of the Volga Region. The principal industries are machine building and textiles. In addition to a motor-vehicle assembly plant and a casting and metalworking plant, the city has factories producing tractor parts, machinery, electrical equipment, electrical measuring devices, cable, metal goods, and spare parts for the electric power industry.
The textile industry is represented by a cotton combine, a hosiery and knitwear factory, a ribbon-weaving factory, and the Rassvet Clothing Production Association. Also located in the city are the Prompribor and Chuvashmebel’ production associations, a meat-packing combine, and a milk plant. The building-materials industry includes a wood-products factory and plants producing reinforced-concrete structural members, modular units of ceramic stone, keramzit (an artificial porous filler), and bonded structures. The city has a district heat and power plant. Under construction in 1978 were a plant for the production of industrial tractors, District Heat and Power Plant No. 2, and the Cheboksary Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Volga.
The Cheboksarka, Kaibulka, Trusikha, and Sugutka rivers divide Cheboksary into six sectors, which fan out toward the Volga, so that the city resembles an amphitheater. The city’s street network is laid out on a radial-ring pattern. In the Soviet period Cheboksary has been rebuilt and modernized, and an embankment has been constructed along the Volga. The city’s construction is proceeding according to a general plan (1969, architects M. E. Kolosovskii and others). Housing construction has been undertaken on a large scale, and large public buildings have been erected, such as the House of Soviets (1940, architect M. M. Bazilevich), the buildings of the city executive committee (1958, architect F. S. Sergeev) and the building of the city committee of the CPSU (1959, architect F. S. Sergeev); all three buildings are located on the city’s central plaza, Lenin Square. In the center of the square is a monument to V. I. Lenin (bronze and granite, 1960, sculptors G. I. Iastrebenetskii and others, architect G. A. Izrailevich); the monument’s pedestal is combined with reviewing stands. Other modern structures include the pedagogical institute (1956, architect A. M. Krylov), the agricultural institute (1957, architect E. E. Kalashnikova), and the building of the philharmonic society (1959, architect F. S. Sergeev). Architectural monuments include the Troitskii Monastery (17th century), the Vvedenskii Cathedral (1657), and the houses that formerly belonged to the Zeleishchikov family (17th century) and the Solovtsov family (mid-18th century).
Cheboksary has monuments to V. I. Chapaev (reinforced concrete and cement, 1960, sculptor P. A. Balandin), the Chuvash poet K. V. Ivanov (1952, sculptor I. F. Kudriavtsev, architect V. I. Stupin), and the Chuvash educator I. Ia. Iakovlev (1971, sculptor D. I. Naroditskii, architect G. E. Saevich). Of particular interest is the memorial lu. A. Gagarin, Space Pioneer (1976, sculptor G. O. Postnikov, architect B. M. Shimarev).
Cheboksary’s educational institutions include the Chuvash University, pedagogical and agricultural institutes, and a department of the Moscow Cooperative Trade Institute. In addition to an evening machine-building technicum and a cooperative trade technicum, the city has technicums of electrical engineering, construction, textiles, power engineering, economic planning, and electrical communications. There are medical, music, and art schools. The city has an all-Union scientific research institute, a design institute, a technological institute for the construction of relay systems, and a scientific research institute of language, literature, history, and economics.
Cheboksary has an art museum and a museum of local lore with two branches, one devoted to literature and the other to V. I. Chapaev, who was born in the village of Budaiki, now within the city limits of Cheboksary. The city’s five theaters are the Chuvash Academic Drama Theater, the Chuvash Music Theater, the Russian Drama Theater, a young people’s theater, and a puppet theater. Cheboksary has a philharmonic society.
REFERENCESDimitriev, V. D. Dorevoliutsionnoe proshloe goroda Cheboksar (k 500-letiiu goroda). Cheboksary, 1969.
Studenetskii, A. N. Znakom’tes’: Cheboksary [4th ed.] Cheboksary, 1973.
Shimarev, B. M. Cheboksary segodnia i zavtra. [Cheboksary, 1973.]