Czech Republic

(redirected from Chechia)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Chechia: Chechnya, Czechia

Czech Republic

Czech Republic, Czech Česká Republika, or Czechia (chĕkˈēə), Czech Česko, republic (2020 est. pop. 10,708,981), 29,677 sq mi (78,864 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by Slovakia on the east, Austria on the south, Germany on the west, and Poland on the north. Prague is the capital and largest city. In addition to the capital, major cities include Brno, Ostrava, and Plzeň.

Land and People

The Czech Republic comprises the former provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia, together often called the Czech Lands. In the western part of the republic lies the Bohemian plateau, which is separated by the Bohemian-Moravian heights from the fertile Moravian lowland in the eastern part of the republic. The Sudetes Mts. in the north separate Moravia from Czech Silesia along the Polish border. Agriculture is concentrated in the Moravian lowlands and in the valleys of the Elbe and Vltava rivers.

More than 90% of the people are Czech, with small minorities of Slovaks, Germans, Poles, Romani (Gypsies), and Hungarians; the Romani have been subjected to increased discrimination since the fall of Communist rule. Although many Czechs do not profess a religion, more than 25% are Roman Catholic. There is also a substantial Hussite minority and a smaller group belonging to the Orthodox Church. Czech is spoken by most people; Slovak is also spoken.


In state hands during the Communist era, much of the Czech Republic's agricultural and industrial sectors was relatively quickly privatized and showed appreciable growth in the early 1990s. Foreign investment was widely sought. An economic slowdown beginning in 1997, however, revealed problems in the transition from government control to a privatized economy, as many large industrial conglomerates with thousands of employees lost money and sought government aid instead of revamping. In 1999–2000 most of the state-owned banks were privatized, with the government assuming responsibility for bad loans; privatization of the telecommunications industry took place in 2005.

The chief crops are wheat and other grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, and fruit. Among the country's livestock are hogs, cattle, sheep, and poultry. Manufacturing is the chief economic activity, especially the production of automobiles, machine tools, machinery, glass, and armaments. Iron and steel industries are important in Moravia. Other industries include metalworking, chemicals, and electronics. The republic's rather scant natural resources include hard and soft coal, timber, and uranium. Machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, raw materials, and fuels are exported, and similar products also constitute the most significant imports. The largest trading partners are Germany, Slovakia, Poland, France, and Italy.


The Czech Republic is governed under the constitution of 1992. The president, who is the head of state, is elected for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. The prime minister is the head of government. The bicameral Parliament consists of the 81-seat Senate, whose members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and the 200-seat Chamber of Deputies, whose members are popularly elected for four-year terms. Administratively the country is divided into 13 regions and the capital city.


For a detailed history of the Czech Lands see Bohemia, Moravia, and Czechoslovakia. In response to Slovakia's demands for greater autonomy, Czechoslovakia was on Jan. 1, 1969, declared a federation. The constituent Czech and Slovak republics received autonomy over local affairs, with the federal government responsible for foreign relations, defense, and finance. The Communist regime collapsed in 1989, and in 1990 economic reforms were begun that were especially disruptive in Slovakia, which had a disproportionate share of subsidized state-owned heavy industry. A strong secessionist movement in Slovakia led to a declaration in 1992 that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic would separate into independent states. In response to the imminent breakup of Czechoslovakia, a new Czech constitution was written. It was implemented with the birth of the new Czech Republic on Jan. 1, 1993.

Václav Havel, who had been president of Czechoslovakia, became the Czech Republic's president; after legislative elections a right-of-center coalition government came into office, headed by Václav Klaus. The government moved quickly to privatize state-owned businesses, and mutual funds became a popular investment vehicle for a public unused to dealing with a stock market. The Czech Republic actively sought membership in Western institutions and alliances. In 1994 it became an associate member of the European Union (it became a full member ten years later), in 1995 it was admitted to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and in 1999 it joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Meanwhile, the economy faltered in 1997 and Klaus was forced to resign. Austerity measures were put in place and Josef Tosovsky, a banker, was appointed caretaker prime minister. Havel was reelected in 1998 and, following legislative elections later that year, Social Democrat Miloš Zeman became prime minister, vowing to slow privatization and return more control to the state.

In the 2002 elections the Social Democrat–led coalition was returned to power, but Zeman, who had resigned as party leader prior to the election, was replaced as prime minister by Vladimír Spidla. Václav Klaus was elected president in 2003, succeeding the retiring Havel. In 2004, after the Social Democrats made a poor showing in the European Parliament elections, Spidla only narrowly survived a party confidence vote, and subsequently resigned as prime minister.

Social Democrat Stanislav Gross succeeded Spidla as government leader, but Gross resigned in Apr., 2005, dogged by charges of personal financial impropriety. He was succeeded as prime minister by fellow Social Democrat Jiri Paroubek. In the June, 2006, elections the Civic Democrats won the largest share of the vote and the most seats in parliament, but the Social Democrat–led coalition secured half the seats. The Civic Democrats formed a three-party coalition, and Mirek Topolánek became prime minister in August. In October, however, the coalition lost a confidence vote, forcing the president to open negotiations on the formation of a new government. In Jan., 2007, the president again approved a government headed by Topolánek that involved the same three parties, and it narrowly won a vote of confidence.

Klaus was elected to a second term as president in Feb., 2008. In July, 2008, the Czech Republic signed an agreement with the United States to base a radar system there. Russia had previously strongly objected to such an arrangement, and shortly after the signing there was a decrease in Russian oil supplies to the Czech Republic that Russia attributed to technical problems despite disbelief from the Czechs. Some 14 months later, however, a new U.S. administration suspended plans to base a ballistic missile defense system in E Europe, and the Czech government later (2011) withdrew from the revamped project.

In Mar., 2009, Topolánek's government lost a confidence vote; an interim government headed by a techocrat, Jan Fischer, was agreed to by the parties and took office in May. The May, 2010, parliamentary elections resulted in a victory for conservative and centrist parties, which won a majority of the seats. Petr Nečas, leader of the Civic Democrats, became prime minister of a center-right coalition government. In the October elections, however, the Social Democrats gained a narrow majority in the senate. In November Nečas won passage of austerity measures and survived a confidence vote but also lost his slim majority in parliament. Subsequently, a number of his government's austerity measures faced senate rejection and presidential veto.

In Jan., 2013, former prime minister Miloš Zeman was elected to succeed Klaus as president; the election was the first time that the president had been chosen directly by the voters. A corruption and abuse of power scandal that involved a close aide to the prime minister led the government to resign in June, 2013; Zeman subsequently appointed a new government headed by Jiří Rusnok despite opposition from parliament. In August, Rusnok lost a confidence vote; parliament subsequently was dissolved and new elections called.

The Social Democrats won a plurality of just over 20% in the October elections, and formed (Jan., 2014) a coalition with two centrist parties; Social Democrat Bohuslav Sobotka was subsequently appointed prime minister. Tensions with the populist ANO party, the second largest member of the coalition, and its leader Andrej Babiš threatened the government for a time in 2017. In the Oct., 2017, parliamentary elections the ANO party won a plurality; Babiš formed a minority government in December, but lost a confidence vote the following month. Also in Jan., 2018, Zeman was reelected president. Babiš finally formed a minority coalition government with the Social Democrats in July, 2018; it also had the support, but not the participation, of the Communists. In 2019 the government was threatened when Zeman repeatedly would not remove and appoint government ministers as requested by the government, and it led to an unsuccessful attempt by the opposition to remove him from office.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Czech Republic

Official name: Czech Republic

Capital city: Prague

Internet country code: .cz

Flag description: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslova­kia)

National anthem: “Kde domov muj?” (Where Is My Home?), lyrics by Josef Kajetán Tyl, music by Frantisek Skroup

National symbols: Lion, eagle, linden tree

Geographical description: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Total area: 30,450 sq. mi. (78,864 sq. km.)

Climate: Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Nationality: noun: Czech(s); adjective: Czech

Population: 10,228,744 (July 2007 CIA est.)

Ethnic groups: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%,

other (including Roma, Silesian, Polish, and German) 4%

Languages spoken: Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59%

Legal Holidays:

Christmas DayDec 25
Christmas EveDec 24
Czech Statehood DaySep 28
Easter MondayApr 25, 2011; Apr 9, 2012; Apr 1, 2013; Apr 21, 2014; Apr 6, 2015; Mar 28, 2016; Apr 17, 2017; Apr 2, 2018; Apr 22, 2019; Apr 13, 2020; Apr 5, 2021; Apr 18, 2022; Apr 10, 2023
Freedom and Democracy DayNov 17
Independence DayOct 28
Jan Hus DayJul 6
Labor DayMay 1
Liberation DayMay 8
New Year's DayJan 1
St. Stephen's DayDec 26
Sts. Cyril and Methodius DayJul 5
Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition. © 2010 by Omnigraphics, Inc.

Czech Republic

a country in central Europe; formed part of Czechoslovakia until 1993; mostly wooded, with lowlands surrounding the River Morava, rising to the Bohemian plateau in the W and to highlands in the N; joined the EU in 2004. Language: Czech. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: koruna. Capital Prague. Pop.: 10 226 000 (2004 est.). Area: 78 864 sq. km (30 450 sq. miles).
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Il doit revetir au cours de cette nuit benie de beaux habits comme la gandoura et la chechia. Le henne donne plus d'eclat a la fete au cours de laquelle l'enfant recoit beaucoup de cadeaux.
15-30, 2009 its second traditional traditional headress (Chechia) promotional campaign in collaboration with the National Cottage Industry Corporation.
Ces dernieres sont constituees d'une gandoura travaillee avec du fil d'or, d'une chechia stamboul grenat tranchant avec le reste de la tenue et de babouches blanches.
Ben Nasser a egalement precise que Rachid Ammar a donne l'ordre au commandant des forces armees de Kasserine de faire porter aux hommes de troupes sur place des berets rouges pour les distinguer des forces de la garde nationales qui ont ete deployees dans la region en leur faisant porter des uniformes militaires , et lorsque le responsable militaire regional a repondu a Rachid Ammar qu'il n'avait pas assez de berets rouges , il lui a dit d'acheter des chechias rouges , car l'essentiel etait de distinguer les forces armees des forces de la garde nationale sur le terrain .
Here, local homogeneity does not yield grayness but a plethora of "white turbans or red chechias" (22).
In return, besides mirrors, umbrellas, needles, head rags, enamel plates and red chechias with pompoms at the trading post, the Toubabs promise the King of Soba his very own railroad train.
They were invited on the occasion to a cultural and tourist sightseeing tour to discover the historical and architectural specifities of the Medina of Tunis, receiving a warm welcome from citizens and traders in the Medina, who offered them "chechias" on which the Tunisian flag was printed on the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Independence Day.