These sections, situated within the areas of the maximum advance of the Don, Oka, and Dnieper ice sheets as well as outside the glacial zone, contain key palaeogeographic markers, such as moraines left by these glaciations, loess horizons correlative to them, stratotypic (Likhvin, Chekalin, and others) interglacial horizons of palaeosols, lacustrine and alluvial sediments, etc.
eight glacial epochs (Pokrovka, Devitsa, Don, Oka, Kaluga, Zhizdra, Dnieper, Valdai) and nine interglacials (Petropavlovka, Gremychie, Semiluki, Muchkap, Likhvin, Chekalin, Cherepet', Mikulino, and the Holocene), which are represented either as complete climatic rhythms of glacial and interglacial rank, or as considerable portions of climatic-phytocoenotic phases--constituents of the rhythm (Bolikhovskaya 1995, 2004).
Correlatives of these formations in the Likhvin section are represented by a well-developed pedocomplex (paraburozem soil in the lower and podzolic soils in the upper part) formed in forest landscapes during the Chekalin interglacial (MIS 9).
Deputy Interior Minister Alexander Chekalin told Putin that 50 militants had been killed and that 10 police officers had also died.
Chekalin, the deputy interior minister, said the fighting began after police launched an operation to capture about 10 militants in a Nalchik suburb.