Chemoprophylaxis


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chemoprophylaxis

[¦kē·mō‚prō·fə′lak·səs]
(medicine)
Use of drugs to prevent the development of infectious diseases.

Chemoprophylaxis

 

a method of preventing diseases—primarily infectious diseases—by using chemical agents. Primary chemoprophylaxis is the administering of chemical agents to healthy persons likely to become infected in epidemic focuses of cholera or plague and in regions where malaria is prevalent. Chemical agents may also be administered to individuals who come into regular contact with tuberculous patients and to persons engaging in casual sexual relations. Chemoprophylaxis helps to prevent infectious diseases and complications in surgical patients likely to experience suppuration and in patients with low immunity (for example, the administration of antibiotics to those undergoing treatment with cytostatic agents or to debilitated influenza patients to prevent inflammation of the lungs).

Secondary chemoprophylaxis is the use of chemical agents to prevent recurrences of neoplasms (for example, in leukemia or after radical excision of a tumor) and rejection of organs and tissues after transplantation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Of the total number of patients included in the study, a contraindication to chemoprophylaxis was recorded in 53 (30%).
In most of the houses, people were consuming chemoprophylaxis (Doxycycline for adults).
Based on these current data, there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of low-dose aspirin for chemoprophylaxis of ovarian cancer.
The form collected the following information: patient age and sex; date of transplantation and type of graft; Toxoplasma serologic status of recipient and donor; date of toxoplasmosis diagnosis; site of infection (cerebral, ocular, disseminated); tools contributing to diagnosis (serology, molecular diagnosis, pathology, direct examination, imaging); chemoprophylaxis type, date of initiation, and duration; patient survival at 2 and 6 months; and date of death, if applicable.
Therefore, to address the gaps in evidence and look for newer studies for chemoprophylaxis for child contacts of MDR-TB patients, a systematic review was carried out with the following objectives: (i) to determine the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis or TB preventive therapy in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis disease in childhood contacts of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients and (ii) to determine the occurrence of any adverse events during the course of chemoprophylaxis or TB preventive therapy.
Through the National Consensus Guidelines for Chemoprophylaxis and Surgical Site Infections we hope to bring all surgeons on the same page.'
The 'national consensus guidelines for Chemoprophylaxis and surgical site infections handbook' was launched at an event here, said an announcement.
(17-19) In addition we assessed knowledge of leprosy and attitudes to chemoprophylaxis among the subjects by a questionnaire.
10 Hacker et al.11 in their study, concluded that "cases diagnosed through contact surveillance are detected earlier in the disease progression, have lower initial and final bacterial indices, have lower initial and final disability grades, and have a lower prevalence of disease reactions."11 Another important tool in leprosy control could be chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis of contacts.
Initial prevention policy included 100% chemoprophylaxis at all times in both theaters of operations in the early stages of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.
(10) With increasing recognition of potential for the development of thromboembolic events, several randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in reducing the risk of VTE.
It is indicated for the treatment of acute malaria in certain patients and for the treatment of chemoprophylaxis of malaria due to susceptible strains of plasmodia, concluded Impax.