chemotherapy

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chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
The global chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting drugs market report provides market size (Revenue USD Million 2013 to 2020), market share, market trends and forecasts growth trends (CAGR%, 2016 to 2020).
According to the company, SUSTOL is an extended-release, injectable 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that utilises its Biochronomer polymer-based drug delivery technology to maintain therapeutic levels of granisetron for >=5 days, covering both the acute and delayed phases of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
More than half of cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy suffer acute and/or repeated chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, according to Eisai.
Craig Landau, President and CEO, Purdue Pharma Canada added:Subject to product approval by Health Canada, this agreement will enable us to provide Canadians with an important and novel treatment in oncology supportive care which can mitigate the distressing side effects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting said Dr.
Biopharmaceutical company TESARO (NasdaqGS:TSRO) stated on Wednesday that its Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) for oral rolapitant has been validated by the European Medicines Agency for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
Pharma's commercial activities, including the commercial launch of APF530, the Company's lead product candidate for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, if approved.
M2 PHARMA-August 11, 2016-Heron Therapeutics passes US FDA approval of SUSTOL extended-release injection for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Zuplenz (ondansetron) Oral Soluble Film, is reportedlyapproved by the US FDA in adult patients for the prevention of highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV), and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
As a patient-focused company, Eisai is pleased that ASCO has provided an expedited guidance for antiemetics to recommend AKYNZEO as an additional agent for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its lead product candidate, APF530, for the prevention of acute- and delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
M2 PHARMA-March 24, 2016-TESARO submits marketing authorisation application in Europe for oral rolapitant for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting