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Chengdu (chŭng-do͞o) or Chengtu, city (2021 est. metro. area pop. 9,305,116), capital of Sichuan prov., SW China, on the Min River. It is a port and the commercial center of the Chengdu plain, the main farming area of Sichuan. Its irrigation system dates back to the 2d cent. B.C. A transportation hub, it is the rail center for SE China. Products include textiles, processed foods, chemicals, machinery, railway equipment, aluminum, electronics, and paper. High-grade iron ore is mined at nearby Lugu.
Chengdu, an old walled city, was in existence during the Ch'un-ch'iu period (770–475 B.C.). It was the capital of the Shu Han dynasty (3d cent. A.D.) and one of the earliest (9th cent. A.D.) printing centers in China. A cultural seat since ancient times, it is commonly called “little Beijing.” Its numerous institutions of higher learning include Sichuan Univ., Chengdu Technical Univ., and two medical colleges. The New Century Global Center, in the new, planned district of Tianfu, is the largest free-standing building in the world, with offices, hotels, shopping, and leisure attractions. The cottage where Tu Fu wrote his poetry (8th cent.) was restored in 1955.
a city in Southwest China, in the valley of the Min Chiang. Capital of Szechwan Province. Population, 2.2 million (1975).
Ch’engtu is a major transportation junction and industrial center. The city’s machine-building industry manufactures such products as radios, machine tools, instruments, precision tools, and transportation equipment. There is copper and aluminum smelting. The city also manufactures rolled pipes, chemical products, textiles, food products, wood products, and leather goods. A fossil-fuel-fired steam power plant is located in the city. Ch’engtu, which is noted for its fine handicrafts, has a university.
Ch’engtu was founded in the fourth century B.C. It was the capital of the Shu state from A.D. 221 to A.D. 263 and the capital of the Earlier and Later Shu kingdoms from 908 to 965. From 1644 to 1646 the city was occupied by the rebel army of Chang Hsien-chung. In the second half of the 17th century, after the Manchu conquest of China, it became the capital of Szechwan Province. In September 1911 the city was besieged by nationalist rebels (seeSZECHWAN UPRISING OF 1911). The city was freed from Kuomintang rule by the People’s Liberation Army of China on Dec. 27, 1949.
Early in the Common Era, Ch’engtu was renowned for its brocades and was often called Chinch’eng, or “city of brocade.” The city has numerous gardens and parks, and its architectural monuments include the Wu-hou Tz’u shrine (16th–18th centuries), the temple Ch’ing Yang Kung (literally, “Black Sheep Palace”; 13th century), and the monastery Pao Kuang Ssu. The Tu Fu House-Museum and the Szechwan Provincial Museum are located in Ch’engtu.