Cherepanov, Efim Alekseevich and Miron Efimovich

Cherepanov, Efim Alekseevich and Miron Efimovich


Efim Alekseevich, born 1774 at the Vyiskii Zavod; died June 15 (27), 1842, in Nizhnii Tagil. Miron Efimovich, born 1803 at the Vyiskii Zavod; died Oct. 5 (17), 1849, in Nizhnii Tagil. Russian machine builders. Father and son were serfs of the Demidovs, a family of factory owners. Efim and his wife were freed in 1833; Miron and his wife were freed in 1836.

In the 1810’s, Efim Cherepanov established a machine-building plant (the Vyia Metalworking Plant) completely equipped with metal-cutting machine tools, some of original design (in particular the screw lathes, gear-cutting lathes, and planers). From 1822 until his death he was chief mechanic of all the Nizhnii Tagil plants. Miron Cherepanov first studied with his father and in 1819 was named his assistant; he took his father’s place after the latter’s death.

The Cherepanovs developed equipment for blast furnace operations, ironworking, copper smelting, sawmilling, flour milling, and gold mining. Their work on steam engines, which they persistently promoted, was of great interest. In all, beginning in 1820, they constructed approximately 20 steam engines, varying in power from 2 to 60 horsepower. They developed Russia’s first steam locomotive in 1833 and 1834 and the second, of greater power, in 1835; the latter incorporated the leading technological ideas of the time. A cast-iron railway was laid from the Vyia Plant to the Mednyi Mine. Despite the successful operation of the steam locomotives, the innovation received no support, and the steam locomotives were replaced with horse traction. The railway operated in this manner until the early 1900’s.


Virginskii, V. S. Zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’ russkikh mekhanikov Cherepanovykh. Moscow, 1956.
Zagorskii, F. N. Ocherki po istorii metallorezhushchikh stankov do serediny XIX veka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.