The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a river in the Crimea where a battle between Russian and allied (French, English, Sardinian, and Turkish) forces took place 8–12 km southeast of Sevastopol’ on Aug. 4 (16), 1855, during the Crimean War.

In late June 1855, Emperor Alexander II demanded that the commander in chief of the Russian forces in the Crimea, General M. D. Gorchakov, mount a determined offensive to render aid to Sevastopol’. On June 28 (July 10) it was decided at a military council to attack the enemy at the Chernaia River. Preparations for the offensive proceeded slowly and with little attempt at concealment. About 58,000 troops, including 10,000 cavalry and 272 artillery pieces, were massed for the offensive. The enemy forces numbered about 60,000.

Two columns, the left led by General P. P. Liprandi and the right by General N. A. Reada, began the attack at dawn on August 4 (16) but were unable to advance because of insufficient troops, a lack of coordination in their operations, and unsatisfactory leadership by the Russian command. Reserves were brought into battle piecemeal and suffered heavy losses. The battle ended in sporadic skirmishes that were very bitter in some sectors. By 10 A.M. the Russian Army, having lost more than 8,000 men, had been driven from the Chernaia River. The allies’ losses were about 2,000. The defeat at the Chernaia worsened the position of the Russian forces in the Sevastopol’ area.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
See Vasilii Grossman and U'ia Erenburg, Chernaia kniga: O zlodeiskompovsemestnom ubiistve evreev nemetsko-fashistskimi zakhvatchikami vo vremenno-okkupirovannykh raionakh Sovetskogo Soiuza i v lageriakh unichtozheniia Pol 'shi vo vremia voiny 1941-1945 gg.
The 12 varieties of black currant growing in 2014 year were chosen as a study subjects (Monisto, Lentiai, Vera, Nara, Charodei, Briansii agat, Mria, Partizanka brianskaia, Selechenskaia-2, Strelets, Chernaia vual, 6-26-130) and 6 varieties of red raspberry (Skromnitsa, Kolokolchik, Nagrada, Lubetovskaia, Novost Kuzmina, Ranii surpriz).
Stepanov, Chernaia sotnia v Rossii (1905-1914 gg.), Moscow: Rosvuznauka, 1992.
All of them have written extensively themselves about the crushing of the anarchist movement, particularly after the death of Kropotkin in 1921, and historians of the movement have studied their activities and writings.10 The same could be said for the Makhno wars in Ukraine as well as the main anarchist journals and newspapers of the era, including Golos truda, Burevestnik and Chernaia gvardiia through the final liquidation of the movement, although there is much new material that has appeared more recently on these themes.
One son, Matvei, aged 35, was lame, and cannot have contributed much to the household's income, which the remaining three brothers had to generate largely on their own by manual labor (chernaia rabota).
[15.] Moore SA, Sielecki AR, Chernaia MM, Tarasova NJ, James MN.
Chernaia, Russkaia kul'tura perekhodnogo perioda otsrednevekov 'ia k novomu vremeni (Moscow: Iazyki russkoi kul'tury, 1999) (following the methods of Max Scheler, the author sees Russia moving from the "suprasensible" world of the Middle Ages to "rationalism" c.
Kurtua [Stephane Courtois] et al., Chernaia kniga kommunizma: Prestupleniia, terror, repressii (Moscow, 1999), cited at; during Easter 1938, the city of Leningrad had 5 working churches, out of 33 still in operation just one year earlier (S.