Chess Composition

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Chess Composition

 

a specialized branch of chess that involves the composition of problems (hypothetical positions with a checkmate possible in a given number of moves) and studies (positions similar to those used in games, in which the player must find the way to victory or stalemate).

The study as an independent branch of chess composition evolved in the mid-19th century. The first collection of studies was compiled by B. Horwitz and J. Kling in 1851. The founder of the modern artistic study was A. A. Troitskii (1866–1942, Honored Art Worker of the RSFSR from 1928), who established the basic principles of study aesthetics between 1894 and 1900 and elaborated them in subsequent years. His immediate followers were I. Zevers, V. N. Platov, M. N. Platov, and L. I. Kubbel’ of Russia and H. Rinck of France. Soviet chess composers have continued to play a leading role in the development of study composition.

The first chess problem was composed in the Middle Ages. The modern artistic study criteria (originality and economy) were defined in the mid-19th century. By the end of the century the principles of the chief schools were formulated by the problemists S. Lloyd (USA), A. Mackenzie (Jamaica), K. Bayer and J. Berger (Germany), J. Dobrusky and J. Pospisil (Czechoslovakia), and C. Plank and B. Laws (Great Britain). The best-known Russian problemists of the 19th century were A. D. Petrov, I. S. Shumov, and A. V. Galitskii. Major problemists of the 20th century have included J. Kohtz and W. von Holzhausen (Germany), M. Havel and E. Palkosky (Czechoslovakia), A. White (United States), A. Ellerman (Argentina), and M. M. Barulin and L. A. Isaev (USSR).

International and national competitions in problems and studies are held. In the USSR, individual championships were first organized in 1929 and have been held regularly since 1947; team championships have been conducted since 1956. Sports ranks are awarded on the basis of results in these competitions. Based on the process of elimination in a competition sponsored by the FIDE Album, which publishes the official collection of studies and problems of the International Chess Federation, the title of international grandmaster was awarded to the following between 1930 and 1970: E. Wissermann (the Netherlands), C. Mansfield (Great Britain), G. Paros (Hungary), N. Petrovic (Yugoslavia), J. Fritz and V. Pachman (Czechoslovakia), and V. A. Bron, G. M. Rasparían, V. A. Korol’kov, and L. I. Loshinskii (USSR).

E. I. UMNOV

References in classic literature ?
Levin was confirmed in this generalization by observing that his brother did not take questions affecting the public welfare or the question of the immortality of the soul a bit more to heart than he did chess problems, or the ingenious construction of a new machine.
My interest in it was the greater because five years ago I looked into a similar case in the chess problem world.
In a particularly difficult chess problem it took him months to solve, it was "one obscure little move by an inconspicuous pawn" that was the key to victory.
Paul Morphy (1837-1884), the master strategist from New Orleans, whom Salvatore Marano credits as Faulkner's "model" (265) for Gavin Stevens, developed the chess problem (or conundrum) from his encounter with the partnership of the Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard at the Paris Opera in September 1858.
Ravilious, "The Aesthetics of Chess and the Chess Problem," British Journal of Aesthetics, vol.
Nor does the solving of a particular chess problem serve as a guideline for progress.
Moreover, while, as Brian Boyd maintains, during the first half of 1919 Nabokov wrote at least as many chess problems as he did poems ("in his London notebook there is a chess problem for virtually every poem"), (11) in 1918 Penrose became a founding member of the British Chess Problem Association in London.
Most people would agree that there is certain artistry to chess and this can be found primarily in the world of chess problem composition (Ravilious, 1994).
1995) and Atherton, Zhuang, Bart, Hu, and Sheng (2003) studied chess-players who had to solve a chess problem while their brain activity was recorded.
chunks or templates, see Chase & Simon, 1973; Gobet & Simon, 1996a) that may index appropriate moves or ction plans, and the ability to search through the chess problem space in an effective manner, which requires knowledge to selectively generate and accurately evaluate chess positions (Chase & Simon, 1973; Gobet & Simon, 1998a).
Although Carter has enjoyed the game most of his life, he says he is not a great player and took extra care to consult experts for accuracy about a particular chess problem.