Chetvert


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Chetvert’

 

in Rus’ and Russia:

(1) A land measure equal to one-half of a desiatina. It was mentioned as early as the late 15th century and was in official use until 1766. Depending on the size of the desiatina, the chetvert’ amounted to 1,200,1,600, or 1,250 square sazheni.

(2) A dry measure, used principally for grain, groats, and flour. In certain Russian principalities and states in the 14th and 15th centuries, a chetvert’ was equal to one-fourth of a kad’ (or okov) with varying weights. The official chetvert’ in the 16th and early 17th centuries was equal to 4 poods of rye grain (1 pood equals approximately 16.38 kg), then to 6 poods, and, beginning in the last quarter of the 17th century, to 8 poods. In several regions, local chetverti of various volumes were known in the 17th century. The unit went out of practical use in the mid-18th century.

(3) A liquid measure equal to one-fourth of a vedro (bucket). It was first used in the 16th or 17th century. In 1885 the volume of a chetvert’ was defined as 3.0748 liters. It was used chiefly in the sale of wine and liquor and was equal to 5 vodka butylki (bottles) or 4 wine butylki.

(4) In the 17th century the chetvert’ was sometimes used as a measure of weight for certain commodities; for example, 1 chetvert’ of wax was equal to 12 poods.

(5) A measure of length used in the 16th and 17th centuries, equal to one-quarter of a sazhen’ or, later, one-quarter of an arshin. The latter dimension (about 18 cm) was used in rural areas until the October Revolution of 1917.

REFERENCES

Kamentseva, E. I., and N. V. Ustiugov, Russkaia metrologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1975.
Romanova, G. Ia. Naimenovanie mer dliny v russkom iazyke. Moscow, 1975.
References in periodicals archive ?
Generals would receive between 875 and 1,500 chetverts of land, staff officers between 575 and 725 chetverts, and officers (ober-ofitsery) between 225 and 475 chetverts.
The 1766 survey instruction also prescribed to include in one obza ten chetverts in one field or 15 desiatinas in three fields.
Table 5 Fodder Tax Arrears, 1734-37 Absolute oats, hay, straw, Year chetverts poods sheaves 1734 1,168.45 12,061.00 20,436.50 1735 1,295.53 12,955.25 21,435.15 1736 1,330.45 13,346.75 22,234.00 1737 1,492.55 16,461.25 28,655.00 Total 5,286.98 54,824.25 92,760.65 Share of yearly tax (%) oats, hay, straw, Year chetverts poods sheaves 1734 9.3 9.6 9.9 1735 10.3 10.3 10.3 1736 10.6 10.7 10.7 1737 11.9 13.1 13.8 Total 10.6 10.9 11.2
In 1628-33, the Muscovite state sold grain to Sweden at an average rate of 53 kopecks per chetvert'.
The actual total depends on the costs and expenses of the foreign ambassadors and other extraordinary expenditures which are incurred by this office." About 330,000 rubles should have been collected from the tax districts: "Some of the five chetverti, such as that of Kazan and the Novaia Chetvert' [New Tax District], yield each year a clear sum of eighty or one hundred thousand rubles, after all costs are met ...
At the beginning of the 17th century, one chetvert' of rye, as noted above, cost approximately 15 kopecks (in the northern towns of Vologda and Velikii Ustiug, a chetvert' of rye cost 17.5-23.5 kopecks in 1598-99).
(90) See similar conclusions derived from sources on the town of Viatka: Dmitrii Redin, "Integratsiia chinovnichestva v provintsial'nye gorodskie elity: Rossiia, pervaia chetvert' XVIII v.," Cahiers du monde russe 51, 2-3 (2010): 281-302.