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["Research on Knowledge-Based Software Environments at Kestrel Institute", D.R. Smith et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng, SE-11(11) 1985]
(also Nan Ch’i, or Southern Ch’i), a dynasty and feudal state in southern China during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties (fourth to sixth centuries). The dynasty and state, which lasted from 479 to 502, were founded by Hsiao Taoch’eng after he killed the last emperor of the Sung Dynasty, which had ruled since 420. The state’s capital was Ch’ienk’ang (now Nanking). In 502 the ruler of the Yungchou region, Hsiao Yen, seized the throne and proclaimed the foundation of the Liang Dynasty, which lasted from 502 to 557.
an ancient Chinese kingdom of the Ch’un Ch’iu and Chan Kuo periods. In the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., Ch’i was one of the five hegemons, and from the fifth to third centuries it was one of the seven most powerful kingdoms in China; these kingdoms were independent of the Chou monarchy. Ch’i occupied most of what is now Shantung Province and part of what is now Hopeh Province. Its capital was Yinch’iu (now Lintz’u in Shantung). In 221 B.C., Ch’i was conquered by the kingdom of Ch’in.