chi rho

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chi rho

monogram of first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 111]
See: Christ
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Rhode Island) and the importance of the chi-rho in insular and Anglo-Saxon manuscript decoration.
Hurtado examines manuscripts used by early Christians as artifacts that reveal aspects of early Christianity: the earliest texts of Old and New Testament; the preference for the codex over the scroll; the use of nomina sacra (abbreviations for sacred names); the staurogram (the chi-rho as the earliest symbol of the cross), and the size of codices.
In 312 Constantine ordered his soldiers to paint the Chi-Rho symbol of the Christian God on their shields before going into battle against a rival emperor.
In Christian tradition, the superimposed Chi-Rho (Greek letters for the Ch & R sounds that begin the name, or, more precisely, title "Christ") flanked by alpha (first letter of the Greek alphabet) and omega (the last letter), that is the faith affirmation that Christ, as God, is "the beginning and the end," easily transpose from the Egyptian Ankh, the sign of life.
Early Christian terracotta lamps with Christian symbols including fish, lambs and Chi-rho symbols will also be auctioned at Bonhams, Knightsbridge.
And a terrible deficiency in the book - one of which Head is victim rather than perpetrator - is the poverty of the muddy, black-and-white illustrations of texts like the chi-rho monogram from The Book of Kells and the St Mark carpet page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, illuminations whose colour and text-border linking Head describes so eloquently.
For whatever reason Constantine dreamed that if he put the Greek letters chi-rho (XP) on his standards he would win his final battle for Rome.
In the course of this struggle, he won a victory over his rival Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, near Rome, in 312 where, famously, Constantine saw a vision of the Chi-Rho Christian symbol in the sky and ascribed his victory to Christ.