Chiapas

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Chiapas

(chēä`päs), state (1990 pop. 3,210,496), 28,732 sq mi (74,416 sq km), SE Mexico, on the Pacific Ocean between Guatemala and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Tuxtla GutiérrezTuxtla Gutiérrez
or Tuxtla,
city (1990 pop. 289,626), capital of Chiapas state, SE Mexico, in the fertile Grijalva valley and at the foot of the Chiapas highlands. Agriculture and cattle raising are the chief occupations, and there is trade in timber.
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 is the capital. Chiapas is crossed by mountain ranges rising from the isthmus and extending southeast into Guatemala. They are separated by low, subtropical valleys. Paralleling the coastal plain is the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, reaching 13,310 ft (4,057 m) at Tacaná volcano. The state's principal river valley is the Grijalva, northeast of which are the central highlands. Farther to the northeast are lower ranges, lakes, and valleys, falling away toward the Usumacinta River and the rain-forested plains of TabascoTabasco
, state (1990 pop. 1,501,744), 9,783 sq mi (25,338 sq km), E Mexico, on the Gulf of Campeche. Villahermosa is the capital. Tabasco is predominantly a tropical plain, once densely forested, that is broken by numerous rivers, swamps, and lagoons.
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. This sparsely inhabited region contains valuable but dwindling forests of dyewoods and hardwoods and is also the site of ruined Mayan cities (notably PalenquePalenque
, ancient city of the Maya in Chiapas, S Mexico, in the Usumacinta Valley. Its architectural elegance, adapted to tropical and topographical conditions, was a high point in the art of the Classic period.
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). The area is also the retreat of the Lacandones, a gradually disappearing indigenous people often thought to be related to the ancient Maya.

The climate of Chiapas, except for the highlands, is hot. Rainfall is heavy from June to November. Subsistence crops are grown, and coffee (of which Chiapas is a leading national producer), rubber, and cacao are economically important, as is livestock breeding. The state's rich mineral resources, especially silver, gold, and copper, remain mostly unexploited, although petroleum production has become significant. Chiapas also has valuable amber deposits. The state is also a major producer of hydroelectric power from dams on the Grijalva River. In general, economic development has been hindered by remoteness and inadequate communication; however, airlines and the Inter-American Highway link Tuxtla with the highland towns, especially the pre-1892 capital, San Cristóbal de las Casas, and are opening up the interior. Tourism and ethnological research are both increasingly important. Interesting archaeological sites have been discovered near the village of Chiapa de Corzo.

Conquered with difficulty by the Spanish, Chiapa, as it was then called, was attached to the captain generalcy of Guatemala. Never part of colonial Mexico, quasi-independent Chiapas was annexed by the republic following the collapse in 1823 of the empire of Agustín de IturbideIturbide, Agustín de
, 1783–1824, Mexican revolutionist, emperor of Mexico (1822–23). An officer in the royalist army, he was sympathetic to independence but took no part in the separatist movement led by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, and in fact helped to
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. Its people, however, many of them members of highland Maya tribes, resisted the central government in various uprisings. In early 1994 several towns in Chiapas were briefly occupied during an uprising by peasants, who remain on the socioeconomic and political margins in the state. Armed conflict was brief, and the rebels (the Zapatista National Liberation Army) established control in a number of communities after a truce was declared. The Zapatistas have continued to press for greater autonomy for all of Mexico's indigenous communities, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of violence.

Chiapas

 

a state in southeastern Mexico. Area, 73,900 sq km. Population, 1,933,000 (1976). The capital of Chiapas in Tuxtla Gutiérrez. In the Indian communities, maize and beans are cultivated by the slash-and-burn method. Coffee plantations are located in the foothills. In the 1970’s, Chiapas began producing sizable quantities of petroleum.

Chiapas

a state of S Mexico: mountainous and forested; Maya ruins in the northeast; rich mineral resources. Capital: Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Pop.: 3 920 515 (2000). Area: 73 887 sq. km (28 816 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
was first organized when a few indigenous communities from the Chiapan highlands and jungles in the north and southeastern parts of the state came together in 1996.
For example, the Zapatistas emphasize their allegiance to democracy over the more traditional, hierarchical modes of Chiapan group decision making; (64) and they frequently intone the demands that indigenous women are making in relation to their role in domestic and political affairs.
While certainly inciting advocacy for indigenous rights and female equality, this testimony is rather to something experienced not only by the apparent subaltern victims of the struggle, but by all concerned: the loss of "home" felt by all the actors in the strife occurring in the Chiapan highlands in the 1930s.
The corporations are already touting Chiapans as ideal workers because they have no history of unionizing or of collective action for workers' rights.
The poverty is especially harsh among Maya Indians who make up one-fourth of the 4 million Chiapans.
citizens, all of San Francisco, watched a raid by 750 military troops, for example, in the small Chiapan town of Taniperlas on April 11.
54 percent of the Chiapan population suffers from malnutrition .
In 1558, Spaniard Pedro Ramirez de Quinones led troops against Chiapan Indians in what has come to be called the War of the Cakchiqueles.
The August elections brought Eduardo Robledo, the candidate of the entrenched Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), to power in Chiapas, but the Chiapan People's Electoral Tribunal, made up of representatives of Indian and campesino groups, declared the results fraudulent after their own investigation.
Therefore, after a brief discussion of the Chiapan folk son in its regional, national, and middle-American contexts, he passes to the less controversial areas of classical transcriptions and original classical works by Mexican composers.
The Chiapan co-op scheduled an organic inspection for January, and looked forward to its first year as a certified organic producer.