The present paper reports on a study that analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to identify the mtDNA haplogroups associated with various indigenous Colombian groups in order to establish their genetic structures and consider possible relationships between haplogroup frequencies and linguistic affiliations, particularly to reexamine proposed relationships between the extent of the Chibchan language
family and high frequencies of haplogroup A.
Chibchan languages have different strategies of personal reference marking on verbs, namely bound and unbound elements.
Languages are clustered together according to the subgrouping of Chibchan languages proposed by Constenla Umana (2012: 415-7).
The relationship between the patterns described in Table 1 and the subgrouping of Chibchan languages as proposed by Constenla Umana (2012: 415-7) is not always straightforward.
Thus, from a diachronic point of view, the situation of analytic and synthetic strategies of verbal person marking appears to be rather dynamic in some Chibchan languages.
Some Chibchan languages display alternating strategies for verbal person marking: verbal person can be indicated by either bound or unbound forms in Muisca, Teribe/Terraba, and Rama.
First, it has been argued that synthetic verbal person marking in Chibchan languages is not necessarily the result of deep-time retention (section 1).
In future studies, it would be worthwhile to trace the role of language contact as affecting the morphosyntactic properties of verbal person marking of different Chibchan languages. Based on cross-linguistic evidence, van Gijn (this volume) states that language contact often leads to a simplification, in terms of morphological complexity.
Chibchan languages. The Indigenous Languages of South America.
Development of transitivity in the Chibchan languages of Colombia.
The Chibchan Languages. Cartago, Costa Rica: Editorial Tecnologica de Costa Rica.