The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(personal name, Hung Li). Born Nov. 25, 1711, in Peking; died there Feb. 7, 1799. Emperor of the Manchu Ch’ing Dynasty in China (1736–96).

During the reign of Ch’ienlung, Manchu-Chinese feudal lords waged wars of conquest against the Dzungarian Khanate, Burma, Vietnam, Nepal, and the Uighur kingdoms of East Turkestan. Ch’ienlung’s rule was marked by oppression of Chinese patriots and by censorship and burning of any books in which the Manchu rulers detected criticism of their supremacy. With the end of Ch’ienlung’s reign, Manchu domination in China began to decline. In 1796, Ch’ienlung abdicated in favor of his son Yungyen.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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