child welfare


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child welfare,

services provided for the care of disadvantaged children. Foundling institutions for orphans and abandoned children were the earliest attempts at child care, usually under religious auspices. At first the goal was to provide minimum physical subsistence, but services have been expanded to include social and psychological help. In the late 18th cent., a movement developed around the idea that children should not simply be regarded as small adults, and such educators as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel were discussing children's special needs at the same time that the Industrial Revolution intensified the nonagricultural exploitation of child laborchild labor,
use of the young as workers in factories, farms, and mines. Child labor was first recognized as a social problem with the introduction of the factory system in late 18th-century Great Britain.
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. In the 19th cent. many religious and private institutions were organized to take care of children who were orphaned, destitute, or handicapped. In child-welfare legislation, the British Children's Charter Act of 1908 and the Ohio Children's Code Commission of 1911 marked a new era. The idea that it was the responsibility of the community to provide children with the advantages that their parents could not supply is a 20th-century development. In this category are free school lunches; medical, dental, and psychiatric services and child guidance clinics in schools; playgrounds; children's courts; special schools for handicapped children; and care in foster families for children of broken homes. Infant and child clinics are often provided by municipalities. Many social welfaresocial welfare
or public charity,
organized provision of educational, cultural, medical, and financial assistance to the needy. Modern social welfare measures may include any of the following: the care of destitute adults; the treatment of the mentally ill; the
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 agencies finance summer camps for both healthy and handicapped children. In the United States child welfare services are administered through the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. A series of new child welfare programs were passed by Congress in the 1960s. These included the Child Nutrition Act, the Head Start Program, and the Foster Grandparent Program. The International Union for Child Welfare (1920) organized relief for child victims of major international and national disasters. The United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF), a specialized fund of the United Nations. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and became a permanent part of the United Nations in 1953, when it acquired its current name (but retained
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 (UNICEF, 1946) targets malnutrition and helps reestablish children's services destroyed in war. Current child welfare concerns include child abusechild abuse,
physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others responsible for a child's welfare. Physical abuse is characterized by physical injury, usually inflicted as a result of a beating or inappropriately harsh discipline.
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 and child care (see day nurseryday nursery,
 day-care center,
or crèche
, institution for the care of the children of working parents. Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th cent.
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).

Bibliography

See J. Packman, Child Care Needs and Numbers (1968); D. Zietz, Child Welfare (2d ed. 1969); L. Costin, Child Welfare (new ed. 1972); A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, Social Services in International Perspective (1980), Helping America's Families (1982), and Child Support (1987); V. Zelizer, Pricing the Priceless Child (1985); A. Kadushin and J. A. Martin, Child Welfare Services (4th ed. 1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
As we enter our fourth year of child welfare reform in Minnesota and reflect upon the lessons learned, sustainable collaborative partnerships have emerged as a primary contiguous thread driving our successes.
The bill, one of several child welfare measures moving in the final weeks of the legislative session, needs one more vote in the House before it can head to the Senate for consideration.
Caption: Cindy Blackstock of the First Nations and Family Caring Society won a complaint against a federal government policy that funds on-reserve child welfare at lower rates than off-reserve services.
The new course will run in May, with a refresher in the autumn, and clubs are asked to contact Peaker on rpeaker@yahoo.com to record the name of their child welfare officer and which courses they need to register for if they have not taken one in the last three years.
"It was a great honor to have the opportunity to meet and speak with the delegates of the Child Welfare Society of Kenya,'' stated Sen.
Federal dollars will continue to be used for child welfare work carried out on the reserve.
The Child Welfare Service has, on the basis of an expert assessment, concluded that it is in the children's best interests that they return home to India with their uncle.
Similarly, because we believe that involvement in our child welfare system might frequently be more detrimental than helpful to children and families, and in effect, punitive, we are concerned if, for example, African-American children are disproportionately reported to the system, confirmed as "abused and neglected" with cases opened on them by the system, placed in foster care, and kept longer in foster care than other children.
The goal of the child welfare system is to "ensure safety, permanency, and well-being for all children who come to the attention of the child welfare system," according to the Child Welfare League of America.
Public child welfare has become a system that primarily serves poor children and their families (Pelton, 1994).
Less than six months after the horrifying death of 15-year-old Jeanette Maples, another child abuse case, this one with a less-tragic ending, has prompted an investigation of state child welfare services in Lane County.

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