autism

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Related to Childhood autism: Early Childhood Autism

autism

(ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. Males are affected four times as often as females. Children may appear generally normal until around the age of 24 to 30 months, although studies have identified signs of autism in children under a year of age.

Symptoms, which vary widely in severity, include impairment in social interaction, fixation on inanimate objects, inability to communicate normally, and resistance to changes in daily routine. Characteristic traits include lack of eye contact, repetition of words or phrases, unmotivated tantrums, inability to express needs verbally, and insensitivity to pain. Behaviors may change over time. Autistic children often have other disorders of brain function; about two thirds are mentally retarded; over one quarter develop seizures.

The cause of autism remains unclear, but a psychological one has been ruled out. Neurological studies indicate a primary brain dysfunction, perhaps related to abnormalities that appear to occur in the way the autistic child's brain develops. A genetic component is indicated by a pattern of autism in some families, and studies have suggested that a number of genes may be involved. Exposure in the womb to elevated levels of steroid hormones has been found to be associated with autism in boys in one study, but study compared the average levels of two groups of boys (one with, the without, autism) and individual levels in the two groups overlapped. The condition also appears to be more common in children born to older mothers or older fathers. Treatment in which autistic children are intensively and repetitively taught skills and behaviors from a young age appears to help some children with the disorder.

Bibliography

See T. Grandin, Emergence: Labeled Autistic (with M. M. Scariano, 1986, repr. 1996), Thinking in Pictures (1995), and The Autistic Brain (with R. Panek, 2013); L. Wing, ed., Aspects of Autism (1988); J. Donvan and C. Zucker, In a Different Key (2016). See also publications of the Autism Society of America.

autism

[′ȯ‚tiz·əm]
(psychology)
A schizophrenic symptom characterized by absorption in fantasy to the exclusion of perceptual reality.

autism

Psychiatry abnormal self-absorption, usually affecting children, characterized by lack of response to people and actions and limited ability to communicate
References in periodicals archive ?
3%) were aware that the most known characteristic of childhood autism was "failure to build-up friendship".
Table 1 shown the age, Anthropometric Characteristics and degree of Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)of the subjects.
Relation of the childhood autism rating scale-parent version to diagnosis, stress, and age.
El instrumento diagnostico aplicado fue la Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), en el que obtuvo 43 puntos, lo que la ubico dentro del autismo profundo.
Prenatal valproate exposure and risk of autism spectrum disorders and childhood autism," Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.
This population-based, retrospective study using Danish national medical registers identified children with ASD or childhood autism and determined the independent risk of these disorders associated with in utero exposure to VPA.
LIVING near a busy road is associated with an increase in childhood autism, a study has shown.
LIVING near a busy road is associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of childhood autism, a study has shown.
At 18 months he had a full assessment and doctors confirmed that Ross had childhood autism.
Autism spectrum disorders, which range from mild Asperger syndrome to severe mental retardation and social disability in childhood autism, are diagnosed in about one in 88 children in the U.
Problems of nosology and psychodynamics in early childhood autism.

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