Chinook


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Chinook

(shĭno͝ok`, chĭ–), Native American tribe of the Penutian linguistic stock. Altogether twelve main tribes spoke Chinook languages; all were in the Columbia River valley. The Chinook themselves were on the lower extremity of the river and, with the Clatsop, constituted the now extinct Lower Chinook branch of the linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The village was their main social unit, and a wealthy chief might control several villages. Slavery was common among the Chinook. Their food consisted mostly of fish, roots, and berries. They were skilled with canoes, were noted traders, and practiced the custom of potlatchpotlatch
, ceremonial feast of the natives of the NW coast of North America, entailing the public distribution of property. The host and his relatives lavishly distributed gifts to invited guests, who were expected to accept any gifts offered with the understanding that at a
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. They lacked the totemic art and the secret societies of their neighbors. They were well known to the traders on the Pacific coast in the late 18th cent., and a corrupted form of their language known as Chinook jargon served as a trade language from the Columbia River to Alaska. There were some 800 Chinook in the United States in 1990, working primarily in fishing, logging, and lumbering.

chinook,

warm, dry air mass that descends the eastern slopes of the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mts. after having lost moisture by condensation over the western slopes. Chinooks occur mainly in winter. They sometimes replace the cold continental air mass over the western plains, causing rapid melting of snow and temperature increases as great as 40°F; (22°C;) within a few hours. Similar winds occurring in the Alps and elsewhere are known as foehn winds. The term chinook was originally applied by Oregon settlers to a moist Pacific wind blowing from the direction of a Chinook camp.

Chinook

 

a southwesterly foehn that blows on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and the USA and on the adjacent parts of the prairie. The chinook is accompanied by a very sudden, sharp increase in air temperature of as much as 20° to 30°C, which facilitates increased melting of snow, faster ripening of fruit, and so on. The chinook is observed year-round but is especially frequent in the winter. The term “chinook” is also applied to the moist southwesterly wind that blows from the Pacific Ocean along the western coast of the USA.

chinook

[shə′nu̇k]
(meteorology)
The foehn on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains.

Chinook

1. a North American Indian people of the Pacific coast near the Columbia River
2. the language of this people, probably forming a separate branch of the Penutian phylum
References in periodicals archive ?
Although not the primary purpose of this study, our model does provide an assessment of the present status of winter-run chinook salmon: the quasi-extinction probability of 28% within 50 years indicates that winter-run chinook salmon face a substantial extinction risk, in spite of the probable improved survival since the ESA listing.
The widely varying year-to-year numbers of chinook released by Snake River hatcheries made the new analysis possible, Levin explains.
Wild chinook salmon were collected after spawning as part of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife salmon carcass surveys (November 1999) on the Hanford Reach (Figure 1).
Eight Chinook Mk3s that were bought for the Special Forces are being reverted to ordinary utility helicopters at a cost of more than 90 million pounds.
There already was a fully- functioning package, used in Norwegian Chinooks, available from Stewart Hughes of Southampton.
Chinook begin their lives in freshwater streams, moving out into the ocean three months to a year after birth.
On its maiden trolling voyage, the Lenbrooke came back to port with 17 chinook for 12 anglers.
The more people see Chinook snow-blowers at work, the faster Chinook Manufacturing will grow.
Zike brings more than 30 years of international finance and business experience to Chinook, including serving as the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of both public and private international companies in the energy and clean tech industries.
Honeywell Aerospace Defence and Space president Carey Smith said: "With more than 12 million hours of operation on both the CH-47 and MH-47 fleets, our T-55 turboshaft engine has proved it's prepared to support Chinook operators wherever the mission takes them.
Chinook Medical Gear will sell Drip Drop in dry powder packets, making it both portable and easy to add to a canteen.
Of the total spring chinook run, "somewhere around 36,000 or so" should make it through the fish passage at Willamette Falls, said Jeff Ziller, an Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife fish biologist in Springfield.