Two of these trappers; James Kirker and John Johnson, betrayed the trust the Chiricahua
extended them by luring several large bands deep into Mexico and then presiding over the massacre of several hundred Apaches, often women, children and elderly, to collect scalp bounties offered by regional Mexican officials.
The pioneers who referred to Chiricahua
as the "Wonderland of Rocks" in the late 1880s were the first to gather a group of like-minded individuals throughout the region to write letters on behalf of the land.
The area is also home to the Chiricahua
leopard frog, so named for its leopard-like spotting and its native range centering in its namesake Arizona mountains attendant to the Mogollon province.
Como la practica que, entre 1881 y 1886, la banda chiricahua
a la que pertenecia Geronimo realizaba al cruzar la frontera en ambos sentidos, refugiandose en santuarios ubicados en Sonora pero proximos a la frontera--como en las montanas de Teras, uno de los refugios favoritos de Geronimo y su banda--, o en las estribaciones de la Sierra Madre Occidental, entre los estados de Sonora y Chihuahua, y luego tornaban a atacar asentamientos de vecinos, en direccion sur norte para cruzar su botin a Estados Unidos.
Last November, when we set out to do a mapping project on one of these sites in Chiricahua
National Monument, we found several pieces of an 18th-century Spanish flintlock," says Bruce Huckell, associate professor of anthropology.
Although unidentified, the auctioneer points out that there is a strong resemblance to Geronimo (1829-1909), a Chiricahua
and the last and most feared Apache leader.
Author Sweeney is an independent scholar who has written other books on Cochise and the Chiricahua
Utley might have emphasized more emphatically that Geronimo was not Chiricahua
Prival said his long-term monitoring of snakes in the Chiricahua
Mountains has provided some clues, however.
of Arizona) considers why so much fighting occurred between the US and various Indian tribes during the century following George Washington's presidency, and examines eight wars between the 1780s and 1877--the Ohio Valley War, the Red Stick War, the Arikara War, the Black Hawk War, the Minnesota Sioux War, the Cheyenne and Arapaho War, the Chiricahua
Apache War, and the Nez Perce War--and the causes of each conflict (especially US expansion), the Native situation, events that created open warfare, and their similarities and differences.
GERONIMO'S SKULL Geronimo was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua
Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States during their expansion into tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.
CORVALLIS - Allan Houser - his Chiricahua
Apache surname was Haozous - died in 1994 at age 80 after creating a breathtaking collection of paintings and sculptures that range from modernist fluid abstracts to lifelike representations depicting varying aspects of Native American history and culture.