Chissano, Joaquim Alberto

Chissano, Joaquim Alberto,

1939–, Mozambican political leader. A founding member of the Mozambican Liberation Front (Frelimo), he rose to become a major general in the organization, and after Mozambique became independent from Portugal he served as foreign minister in President Samora MachelMachel, Samora Moïsès
, 1933–86, president of Mozambique (1975–86). Machel joined the Mozambican Liberation Front (Frelimo) in 1962, led its guerrilla forces by 1968, and in 1969 became president of the organization.
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's government. After Machel's death in 1986, Chissano succeeded him as president and Frelimo party leader. Chissano moved Mozambique toward a market economy, secured (1992) an end to the nation's post-independence civil war with Renamo (see MozambiqueMozambique
, officially Republic of Mozambique, republic (2005 est. pop. 19,407,000), 302,659 sq mi (784,090 sq km), SE Africa. It borders on the Indian Ocean in the east; on South Africa and Swaziland in the south; on Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi in the west; and on Tanzania in
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), and oversaw the establishment of a multiparty democracy. Chissano was reelected in multiparty contests in 1994 and 1999 and retired as president and then as party leader in 2005. In 2006 he was appointed a UN special envoy, charged with helping end the insurgency in N Uganda. Chissano won the first Mo Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership in 2007.