chlamydia(redirected from Chlamydia trachomatis)
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A genus of bacteria with a growth cycle differing from that of all other microorganisms. Chlamydiae grow only in living cells and cannot be cultured on artificial media. Although capable of synthesizing macromolecules, they have no system for generating energy; the host cell's energy system fuels the chlamydial metabolic processes. The genome is relatively small; the genomes of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis have been completely sequenced.
The chlamydial infectious particle, called the elementary body, is round and about 350–450 nanometers in diameter. It enters a susceptible host cell and changes to a metabolically active and larger (approximately 800–1000 nm in diameter) reticulate body that divides by binary fission. The entire growth cycle occurs within a vacuole that segregates the chlamydia from the cytoplasm of the host cell. The reticulate bodies change back to elementary bodies, and then the cell lyses and the infectious particles are released. The growth cycle takes about 48 h.
Human diseases are caused by three species of Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and one of the most common. Infections occur in two distinct epidemiologic patterns. In many developing countries, C. trachomatis causes trachoma, a chronic follicular keratoconjunctivitis. It is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, affecting approximately 500 million people. In areas where this condition is highly endemic, virtually the entire population is infected within the first few years of life. Most active infections are found in childhood. By age 60, more than 20% of a population can be blinded as a result of trachoma. See Eye disorders
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen; an estimated 3–4 million cases occur each year in the United States, and there are close to 90 million worldwide. The most common manifestation is nongonococcal urethritis in males. The cervix is the most commonly infected site in women. Ascending infections can occur in either sex, resulting in epididymitis in males or endometritis and salpingitis in females. Chlamydial infection of the fallopian tube can cause late consequences such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy, even though the earlier infection is asymptomatic. The infant passing through the infected birth canal can acquire the infection and may develop either conjunctivitis or pneumonia. A more invasive form of C. trachomatis causes a systemic sexually transmitted disease called lymphogranuloma venereum. See Sexually transmitted diseases
Chlamydia psittaci is virtually ubiquitous among avian species and is a common pathogen among lower mammals. It is economically important in many countries as a cause of abortion in sheep, cattle, and goats. It causes considerable morbidity and mortality in poultry. Chlamydia psittaci can infect humans, causing the disease psittacosis. Psittacosis can occur as pneumonia or a febrile toxic disease without respiratory symptoms.
Chlamydia pneumoniae appears to be a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. It is of worldwide distribution and may be the most common human chlamydial infection. It appears to be an important cause of respiratory disease.
Azithromycin is the drug of choice for uncomplicated chlamydial infection of the genital tract. Two therapeutic agents require longer treatment regimens: doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is the first alternate treatment; erythromycin may be used for those who are tetracycline-intolerant, as well as for pregnant women or young children. See Medical bacteriology