chloramine

(redirected from Chloramines)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Chloramines: chlorine dioxide, Monochloramine

chloramine:

see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
..... Click the link for more information.
.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chloramine

 

any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Taurine chloramine inhibits production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha in activated RAW 264.7 cells by mechanisms that involve transcriptional and translational events.
If the softener is placed before the carbon tanks, decreased softener resin life may occur if the resin is exposed to detrimental levels of chlorine or chloramines in the incoming water.
Water chemistry tests indicated the presence of combined chlorine, including chloramines. HVAC systems, which play an important role in removing air contaminants, were poorly maintained and not operating properly.
When chloramines concentrate above the water surface, it can be challenging to maintain proper water chemistry.
Chloramines, a mixture of chlorine and ammonia, have been used in the system for more than 25 years and are an effective method of water disinfection meeting all USEPA and NJDEP drinking water standards, added the company.
The difference is that chlorine forms many byproducts, including trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA), where as chloramines forms a significantly lower amount of THMs and HAAs but also forms N-nitrosodimethyl amine (NDMA) (9).
Chlorine and chloramines are monitored closely in the dialysis setting.
Johnson, "Chloramine T and related Nhalogeno-N-metallo reagents," Chemical Reviews, vol.
The chloramines, he added, had nothing to do with the department winning the award.
Even though the EPA requires a minimum level of disinfectants in the water, maximums are set as follows: 4 mg/l for elemental chlorine and 4 mg/l for chloramine.
When the gel and fluid are mixed in the syringe, the amino acids bind with chlorine and form chloramines at high pH.
The 7CLM ensures that foodservice operators have clean, great tasting beverages without the smell or taste of chemicals such as chloramines. The 7CLM cartridge from Everpure is NSF-certified to reduce chloramines and reduces a variety of other contaminants.