Chlorination of Water

Chlorination of Water

 

the treatment of water with chlorine and its compounds. The most widespread means of water disinfection, chlorination is based on the ability of free chlorine and its compounds to inhibit the enzyme systems of microorganisms that catalyze oxidation-reduction processes. Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, and chlorinated lime are used to disinfect drinking water. The amount to be added is established by sample water chlorination: it is determined by the chlorine absorptivity of the water, that is, the amount needed to combine with the organic compounds that predominate in the water. An excess amount of chlorine (residual chlorine) is introduced in order to destroy microorganisms that find their way into the water after chlorination. The content of residual free chlorine 30 minutes after chlorination should be no less than 0.3 mg/liter. In some cases, water is chlorinated twice, before purification (preliminary chlorination) and after purification (final chlorination). Should substances exist in water that may give it an unpleasant odor or aftertaste after chlorination, the water is treated with ammonia or ammonium salts before chlorination.

Chlorination is used to disinfect drinking water under field conditions; the most reliable method in this case is superchlorination, which provides an excess of active chlorine no less than 10 mg/liter upon exposure of at least 30 minutes. Superchlorination is also used to disinfect water in centralized water-supply systems when there are epidemiological indications. Superchlorination is followed by dechlorination, that is, the removal of excess chlorine by physical or chemical methods.

Chlorination is also used to disinfect waste waters and the water in swimming pools, to bleach various materials, and to remove iron from industrial wastes.

REFERENCE

Rukovodstvo po gigiene vodosnabzheniia. Edited by S. N. Cherkinskii. Moscow, 1975.
References in periodicals archive ?
Transportation of water by deploying truck mounted / tractor mounted tankers from filling point to distribution point including establishment charges and all equipments / materials / labour for repairing including water charges, water analysis charges, chlorination of water etc comp.
He said WASA Managing Director Syed Zahid Aziz had directed the staff to carry out flushing and chlorination of water lines on emergency basis and if a complaint was received from any area, then chlorine quantity should be increased there and cleaning process be continued till the clearance of water sample.
PESHAWAR -- The Higher Education Department has issued directives regarding cleaning and chlorination of water facilities in the colleges and universities throughout the province.
He said WASA Managing Director Syed Zahid Aziz had directed staff to carry out flushing and chlorination of water lines on an emergency basis and if complaint was received from any area under such scenario chlorine quantity should be increased there and cleaning process should be continued till the clearance of water sample.
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He said the ministry of Health and Water Corporation supervise the chlorination of water on daily basis as it considered the main reason for the disease, assuring the citizens that the watery diarrhea do not represent the Cholera epidemic .
He stressed that steps should be taken by municipal authorities to ensure regular chlorination of water.
Chlorination of water was adopted to purify the water but it is reported that chlorination is also posing the threat of cancer.
We are also working to ensure that the most vulnerable have access to clean water through the repair of pumping stations and chlorination of water sources.
The chlorination of water containing natural organic matter leads to the formation of disinfection by-products.
Supplies for case management and chlorination of water have also been dispatched to some of the affected areas.
has directed all the EDOs (H) to ensure cleaning and chlorination of water supply tanks with the collaboration of TMAs and Public Health Engineering Department to control water born diseases like cholera, diarrhea, typhoid and jaundice, etc.