Chlorination of Water

Chlorination of Water


the treatment of water with chlorine and its compounds. The most widespread means of water disinfection, chlorination is based on the ability of free chlorine and its compounds to inhibit the enzyme systems of microorganisms that catalyze oxidation-reduction processes. Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, and chlorinated lime are used to disinfect drinking water. The amount to be added is established by sample water chlorination: it is determined by the chlorine absorptivity of the water, that is, the amount needed to combine with the organic compounds that predominate in the water. An excess amount of chlorine (residual chlorine) is introduced in order to destroy microorganisms that find their way into the water after chlorination. The content of residual free chlorine 30 minutes after chlorination should be no less than 0.3 mg/liter. In some cases, water is chlorinated twice, before purification (preliminary chlorination) and after purification (final chlorination). Should substances exist in water that may give it an unpleasant odor or aftertaste after chlorination, the water is treated with ammonia or ammonium salts before chlorination.

Chlorination is used to disinfect drinking water under field conditions; the most reliable method in this case is superchlorination, which provides an excess of active chlorine no less than 10 mg/liter upon exposure of at least 30 minutes. Superchlorination is also used to disinfect water in centralized water-supply systems when there are epidemiological indications. Superchlorination is followed by dechlorination, that is, the removal of excess chlorine by physical or chemical methods.

Chlorination is also used to disinfect waste waters and the water in swimming pools, to bleach various materials, and to remove iron from industrial wastes.


Rukovodstvo po gigiene vodosnabzheniia. Edited by S. N. Cherkinskii. Moscow, 1975.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Advisor said that according to public health experts, prevention from naegleria was possible through chlorination of water and using boiled water.
At nmp/mkt area for 112 units and (ii) supply and installation of dosing pump at different locations of kharagpur settlement for chlorination of water under the jurisdiction of ae/den/water supply/kgp.
Participants of the meeting also reviewed measures adopted for chlorination of water so as to counter chances of naegleria in the city.
He pointed out that the emergency office at the Ministry of Health began to collect garbage s and chlorination of water at the level of the seven localities of the state as well as the provision of doctors and medicines and emergency hospital in all the affected localities .
We are also working to ensure that the most vulnerable have access to clean water through the repair of pumping stations and chlorination of water sources.
Elke Leidel, Concern Country Director in Haiti, says, "Right now, prevention is possible: our teams in Port-au-Prince are distributing water purification tablets and we are increasing chlorination of water supplies.
has directed all the EDOs (H) to ensure cleaning and chlorination of water supply tanks with the collaboration of TMAs and Public Health Engineering Department to control water born diseases like cholera, diarrhea, typhoid and jaundice, etc.
At community level, civic bodies should adopt certain preventive measures in order to save people from hazards of summer diseases she said, adding uninterrupted chlorination of water should be ensured at all main sources of water supply to save public from water-borne diseases.
The chlorination of water is credited with revolutionising public health by helping stamp out water-borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera and dysentery.
But the research from Birmingham University published this week about a parallel subject, ie the chlorination of water, should make us very cautious.
Had the Precautionary Principle dominated in recent history, not only electricity, but vaccines, pasteurization of milk, chlorination of water, as well as products like automobiles, cell phones, toasters, and countless others would have been delayed or banned.
The chlorination of water is an effective form of treatment for contaminated water, but in the rural areas where the problem often occurs, few water treatment plants exist.