Some insecticides which need to be within the FSSAI parameters for various dry fruits and nuts like walnuts and almonds include bromide, carbendazim, benomyl and chlorobenzilate
The beekeepers have been forced to use unapproved chemicals such as chlorobenzilate
, phenothiazine, sulphur, amitraz or different pyrethroids to control the mite infestation.
Residual pesticides, such as chlorobenzilate
, diethofencarb, malathion, methiocarb and carbaryl, were not detected.
They relate specifically to the following substances: 2,4,5-T, chlorobenzilate
, parathion-methyl, monocrotophos and phosphamidon (replacing the provisional import decisions 2000/657/EC) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBB -replacing the earlier import decision of 1995 in order particularly to take into account the total ban on PBBs since 1993).
Table 2 List of the Thirty-One Substances Covered by the Rotterdam PIC Convention Pesticides Industrial chemicals 2,4,5-T Crocidolite Aldrin (a) Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) (a) Binapacryl Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (a) Captafol Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) (a) Chlorobenzilate
Tris(2,3dibromopropyl) phosphate Chlordane (a) Chlordimeform DDT (a) Dieldrin (a) Dinoseb and dinoseb salts 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) Ethylene dichloride Ethylene oxide Fluoroacetamide HCH (a) Heptachlor (a) Hexachlorobenzene (a) Lindane (a) Mercury compounds Toxaphene (a) Pentachlorophenol Methyl-parathion Methamidophos Monocrotophos Parathion Phosphamidon Source: Adapted from Annex III of the convention.
The case of chlorobenzilate, an insecticide used mainly on citrus crops, provides an example of the way the E.P.A.
According to the academy, the added cost to growers of switching from chlorobenzilate to another chemical would be closer to $3 million than $57 million.
The beekeepers have been forced to use unapproved products consisting of chlorobenzilate
, phenothiazine, sulphur, amitraz or different parathyroid to control the mite infestation as no approved miticides for use in bees has been available to date.
Of these 16 substances, two--coke oven emissions and nitrosodimethylamine--have zero reported emissions in Greater Houston, two (2,4-dinitrophenol, arsinine) have only negligible modeled ambient concentrations, and 12 have unknown emissions (1,3-propane sultone, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2-chloroacetophenone, 3,3-dimethoxybenzidine, 3,3-dimethyl benzidine, chlorobenzilate
, ethyl carbamate, ethylene thiourea, lindane, N-nitrosomorpholine, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, toxaphene).
In addition, we newly identified estrogenic organochlorine pesticides such as dicofol, chloropropylate, and chlorobenzilate
, whose chemical structures resemble those of DDT and its isomer (Figure 4).
pesticides:2,4,5-T, Aldrin, Captafol, Chlordane, Chlordimeform, Chlorobenzilate
, DDT, Dieldrin, Dinoseb, 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB), Fluoroacetamide, HCH, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Lindane, Mercury compounds, certain formulations of Monocroptophos, Methamidophos, Phosphamidon, Parathion-methyl, Parathion.
Direct black 38 1937-37-7 bcm Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 bde 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 ben Benzene 71-43-2 bht Butylated hydroxytoluene 128-37-0 bna Benzyl acetate 140-11-4 bzo Coumarin 91-64-5 cap Captan 133-06-2 ccc (2-Chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride 999-81-5 cci Cyanamide, calcium 156-62-7 cdu 3-(p-Chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea 150-68-5 chb Chlorobenzilate
510-15-6 chd Chlordane, technical grade 57-74-9 chf Chloroform 67-66-3 cms C.I.