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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
Brown told me that he later phoned Choctaw Jim Wade, a member of one of Talihina's most prominent families.
Choctaw Nation Chief Mr Batton welcomed Mr Varadkar and said: "We consider it a great honour to have you here.
In 1883, the Choctaw signed a treaty with the federal government granting citizenship only to those blacks who were in the nation at the signing of the 1866 treaty as well as sharply limiting black citizenship rights.
The proposal involves construction of 43 miles of additional pipe loops in Alabama, a new compressor facility in Choctaw County and modifications to other compressor stations and valve sites.
At this point, little is known about the Choctaw bass.
They found that the Choctaw bass inhabits coastal river systems in Alabama and along the western Florida Panhandle, including the Choctawhatchee River.
Choctaw Nation partnered with Planet Technologies to develop a Windows 8 based application that provides a comprehensive array of information about the tribe including in-depth tribal history, treaty dates, events, culture and heritage information.
Howe's words suggest that both Mississippi and Louisiana are Indigenous homescapes, demonstrating Choctaw "connections and prolonged existences within their unique territory [that] in turn yield a history--a shared memory and an organic peoplehood" (Clark and Powell 6).
Author Tingle is a storyteller and an enrolled member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
Allen Wright left a giant legacy for the Choctaw Nation and the state of Oklahoma.
Among them are five recent bumper winners - Another Moment, Barnhill Brownie, Choctaw Nation, Clova Island and Sir Vincent.
Crossing Bok Chitto: A Choctaw Tale of Friendship and Freedom