Choctaw


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Choctaw

(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.

Bibliography

See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to the Poteau center, there will be temporary pop-up offices at locations in the 10 counties of the Choctaw Nation.
The author is Choctaw and sprinkles the dialogue with tribal expressions, such as "hoke." Perhaps because of the uncomplicated language of a hi/lo novel, solutions to interpersonal problems seem rather pat.
The plant now employs 23 people; Entergy plans to add nine more, making 32 jobs at the Choctaw County facility.
These spaces allow the services to come to the patient; an important approach to providing care for the Choctaw Nation.
Rather than on the community itself, Snyder focuses on the people who passed through it: Peter Pitchlynn, an elite Choctaw who disdained the enslaved girls whom some of his classmates sexually assaulted; Julia Chinn, Johnson's common-law wife who tried to shield her daughters from deepening racism; and William Ward, an unremarkable lout who did some of the dirty work of Indian Removal.
Mr Varadkar made the visit to thank the Choctaw community for their donation to Irish Famine victims in the 1840s.
Later, when the coal mines closed for a time and young Hurley was without work, he spent his days in the company of Native American members of the Choctaw Nation who, along with the Creeks and Cherokees, were the most important Indian tribes in the territory.
In this exhibition seven contemporary beadwork artists are featured: Roger Ellis Amerman (Choctaw), Karen Berry (Cherokee), Martha Berry (Cherokee), Carol Cypress (Seminole), Jerry Ingram (Choctaw/ Cherokee), Jay Mcgirt (Creek/Seminole), and Brian Zepeda (Seminole).
KIRSTIN SQUINT HAS WRITTEN A REMARKABLE AND MUCH NEEDED monograph on the works of Choctaw writer LeAnne Howe.
Jackson; Jim Finley, Intense Instructor (seated); James Robinson, President/CEO of Choctaw Ikhana Laboratory Services, Inc., Choctaw; Theresa Crisler, President of Innovative Staffing Services, Jackson, and Janita Stewart SBA Mississippi director.
It will provide incremental firm capacity from receipt points located at Transco's Station 85 in Choctaw County, AL to an interconnection between Transco and the Sabal Trail Pipeline in Tallapoosa County, AL.
And in Pocola, Oklahoma, the Choctaw Casino--with its parking lot across the state line in Arkansas--recently opened up a renovated 150,000-SF facility.