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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
A major removal in 1903 lured many Mississippi Choctaws, who were enticed by irresistible financial offers and land ownership possibilities, to the Choctaw Nation (Oklahoma).
Marc Strauss, first vice president investments in Marcus & Millichap s Fort Lauderdale office, and Al Palacios, senior associate in the firm s Miami office, are representing the seller, Choctaw Plaza Ltd.
At this time, Choctaw bass are subject to the same regulations as all other black bass.
Choctaw Nation partnered with Planet Technologies to develop a Windows 8 based application that provides a comprehensive array of information about the tribe including in-depth tribal history, treaty dates, events, culture and heritage information.
Howe's words suggest that both Mississippi and Louisiana are Indigenous homescapes, demonstrating Choctaw "connections and prolonged existences within their unique territory [that] in turn yield a history--a shared memory and an organic peoplehood" (Clark and Powell 6).
Choctaw Nation is one of six horses entered by 'the Exors of Mr K Lee', whose consignment also includes Solo Act, a One Cool Cat filly from the family of the Group 1-placed Galeota, and triple winner Trimlestown.
Tingle, a Choctaw storyteller, and Bridges, a Cherokee artist, have collaborated to produce a stunning picture book for children of all ages.
18 with the State of Mississippi as represented by the Mississippi Development Authority (MDA); Choctaw County Board of Supervisors; and the Choctaw County Economic Development District to build a facility designed to demonstrate the economic feasibility and environmental superiority of converting low-rank coals into a stable liquid fuel, as well as determine exact parameters for a commercial facility.
In fact, they were working on behalf of the Choctaw Indians in neighboring Mississippi, who feared that an Alabama casino would cut into their action.
A statement from Becerra said the $6,500 he received from the Agua Caliente Band and $1,023 he got from the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians were donated because of his long-standing relationship with American Indian tribes.
It was the story of how some Galway folk remembered a past kindness by American Choctaw Indians and returned the favour 160 years later by sending cash to help the Choctaw survivors hit by Hurricane Katrina.
Together Raymond Two Feathers, a Cherokee, and "Dancing Wolf" Michael Taylor, who is Choctaw and French, performed a Hoop Dance.